28 research outputs found

    Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Some Trace Elements in Runoff from Different Types of Athletic Fields

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    Environmental risk of heavy metals and metalloids in athletic fields has raised people‚Äôs attention in the recent years. Seven trace elements, including metals and metalloids, were detected in the runoff of five typical athletic fields in the university campus under three rainfall events. Except for Cr, the total concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd, and As in artificial turf runoff are the highest among five athletic fields, followed by that of plastic runway. The concentration and first flush effect of trace elements are followed in the order of 1st‚ÄČ>‚ÄČ2nd‚ÄČ>‚ÄČ3rd rainfall events. The strongest correlations between metals and metalloids were observed in the tennis court runoff, while the artificial turf shows the least. The release of trace elements could be directly from the surface materials and particles on the athletic field and influenced by the comprehensive factors including surface materials, rainfall events, and pollutant characters. Pollution risk assessment shows that the pollution extent of the five types of athletic field is at least ‚Äúmoderate‚ÄĚ and follows the order of artificial turf‚ÄČ>‚ÄČbasketball court‚ÄČ>‚ÄČplastic runway‚ÄČ>‚ÄČbadminton court‚ÄČ>‚ÄČtennis court. Pb shows the highest pollution level, while Cr shows the highest healthy risk. The results can provide a theoretical basis for runoff pollution control and safety use of athletic fields

    Effects of cadmium exposure during the breeding period on development and reproductive functions in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

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    Cadmium is a common reproductive toxin in aquatic systems. Cd exposure of fish species at high concentrations can severely affect the reproductive function of fish. However, the underlying toxicity of cadmium exposure at low concentrations on the reproductive function in parental fish remains unclear. To investigate the impacts of cadmium exposure on reproductive capability, eighty-one male and eighty-one female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to cadmium at 0 (control group), 5 and 10¬†őľg/L for 28¬†days, and then transferred into clean water to pair spawn. The results showed that cadmium exposure at 5 or 10¬†őľg/L for 28¬†days in rare minnows could reduce the success rates of pair spawning in parent rare minnows, lessen no-spawning activities, and prolong the time for first spawning. Furthermore, the mean egg production of the cadmium exposure group increased. The fertility rate of the control group was significantly higher than that of the 5¬†őľg/L cadmium exposure group. Anatomical and histological data further revealed that the intensity of atretic vitellogenic follicles significantly increased and spermatozoa vacuolated after cadmium exposure (p < 0.05), but slightly increased the condition factor (CF), and relatively stable gonadosomatic index (GSI) values were also observed in the cadmium exposure groups. These observed results indicated that cadmium exposure at 5 or 10¬†őľg/L affected the reproductive activity of paired rare minnow by accumulating Cd in the gonads, and the effect diminished over time. The reproductive risk of low-dose cadmium exposure to fish species remains a cause for concern

    Occurrence and risk assessment of PAHs from athletic fields under typical rainfall events

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    Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including naphthalene (Nap), fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Fla), pyrene (Pyr), and chrysene (Chr) were detected in runoff from five athletic fields during three rainfall events. The event mean concentration (EMC) of ‚ąĎ6PAHs ranged from 3.96 to 23.23 őľg/L, which was much higher than the EMC in urban traffic area runoff. Except for Nap, the PAH concentrations followed in the order of artificial turf > badminton court > basketball court > plastic runway > optennis court. The surface characteristics of the athletic fields, such as the composition of materials and roughness, played an essential role in the release of PAHs. ‚ąĎ6PAHs concentration during the 2nd rainfall event (July 22nd) was the highest among the three rainfall events, indicating that high rainfall intensity facilitated the PAHs release. PAHs during three rainfall events showed little first flush effect except for the artificial turf during the 2nd (22nd July) and 3rd (29th July) rainfall events. The first flush effect could be affected by rainfall characters, PAH properties, and surface characteristics of athletic fields. Ecological risk assessment showed that PAHs in runoff corresponded to moderate-to-high risk, while health risk assessment showed that PAHs could pose a potential carcinogenic danger to human health via dermal contact. HIGHLIGHTS The event mean concentration of ‚ąĎ6PAHs in athletic field runoff ranged from 3.96 to 23.23 őľg/L.; 4-ring PAHs were more significant than 2- and 3-ring PAHs.; High rainfall intensity facilitated the PAHs release.; The first flush effect was affected by rainfall, PAH properties and athletic field surface characters.; PAHs in runoff corresponded to moderate-to-high risk but pose a potential carcinogenic danger to human health via dermal contact.

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

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    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

    No full text
    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report