1,063 research outputs found

    Unipolar Resistance Switching in Amorphous High-k dielectrics Based on Correlated Barrier Hopping Theory

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    We have proposed a kind of nonvolatile resistive switching memory based on amorphous LaLuO3, which has already been established as a promising candidate of high-k gate dielectric employed in transistors. Well-developed unipolar switching behaviors in amorphous LaLuO3 make it suited for not only logic but memory applications using the conventional semiconductor or the emerging nano/CMOS architectures. The conduction transition between high- and low- resistance states is attributed to the change in the separation between oxygen vacancy sites in the light of the correlated barrier hopping theory. The mean migration distances of vacancies responsible for the resistive switching are demonstrated in nanoscale, which could account for the ultrafast programming speed of 6 ns. The origin of the distributions in switching parameters in oxides can be well understood according to the switching principle. Furthermore, an approach has also been developed to make the operation voltages predictable for the practical applications of resistive memories.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figure

    Fast Chain-of-Thought: A Glance of Future from Parallel Decoding Leads to Answers Faster

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    In this work, we propose FastCoT, a model-agnostic framework based on parallel decoding without any further training of an auxiliary model or modification to the LLM itself. FastCoT uses a size-varying context window whose size changes with position to conduct parallel decoding and auto-regressive decoding simultaneously, thus fully utilizing GPU computation resources. In FastCoT, the parallel decoding part provides the LLM with a quick glance of the future composed of approximate tokens, which could lead to faster answers compared to regular autoregressive decoding used by causal transformers. We also provide an implementation of parallel decoding within LLM, which supports KV-cache generation and batch processing. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that FastCoT saves inference time by nearly 20% with only a negligible performance drop compared to the regular approach. Additionally, we show that the context window size exhibits considerable robustness for different tasks

    A Research on Community-Based Livestock of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

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    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau locates in Southwestern China, covering the whole area of Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Southern part of Gansu Province, Northwestern part of Sichuan Province and Northwestern part of Yunnan Province, with an area of around 139.08 million hectares of natural grassland, accounting for 39% of the total area of natural grassland in China. It is also the largest natural ecozones in China and one of the least disturbed regions by human activities, with its air, water sources, soil, grassland, wildlife in their pristine state. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the native home for Tibetan people. Grassland animal husbandry is the foundation of the economy of QTP and the main source of livelihood for local nomadic people. During the long term of concerted evolution with the nature, Tibetan people living on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have formed a uniquely holistic grassland ecological culture that is compatible with their production system and the ecosystem. The majority of Tibetan people observe Tibetan Buddhism. Their respect for nature and their belief in that all sentient beings are equal take deep root in their traditional culture. Their harmonious co-existence with nature exemplifies the eco-civilization ideas and provides a solid cultural foundation for both ecology conservation and featured animal husbandry development. On Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, national policies and initiatives such as dual contract of livestock and forage, natural grassland vegetation recovery, returning grazing land to grassland, grassland ecosystem subsidy and rewarding mechanism have been implemented, playing an important role in promoting grassland ecosystem conservation and grassland animal husbandry development. However, since grassland animal husbandry is a complex system involving grassland, farm animal, environment, society, economy, culture, etc, there are still many outstanding problems to be solved

    Ultra-compact lithium niobate photonic chip for high-capacity and energy-efficient wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitters

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    Recently, high-performance thin-film lithium niobate optical modulators have emerged that, together with advanced multiplexing technologies, are highly expected to satisfy the ever-growing demand for high-capacity optical interconnects utilizing multiple channels. Accordingly, in this study, a compact lithium-niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) photonic chip was adopted to establish four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmitters, comprising four optical modulators based on ultracompact 2 × 2 Fabry-Perot cavities and a four-channel WDM filter based on multimode waveguide gratings. The fabricated chip with four wavelength channels has a total footprint as compact as 0.3 × 2.8 mm2, and exhibits an excess loss of ~0.8 dB as well as low inter-channel crosstalk of < –22 dB. Using this LNOI photonic chip, high-capacity data transmissions of 320 Gbps (4 × 80 Gbps) on-off-keying signals and 400 Gbps (4 × 100 Gbps) four-level pulse amplitude signals were successfully realized with the ultra-low power consumption of 11.9 fJ/bit

    Environmental Molecular Effect on the Macroscale Friction Behaviors of Graphene

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    This study investigated the friction behavior of graphene in air and nitrogen atmosphere environments. The microstructural evolution caused by the variation of atmosphere environments and its effect on the friction coefficient of the graphene is explored. It is demonstrated that graphene can exhibit excellent lubricating properties both in air and nitrogen atmosphere environments. In air, a highly ordered layer-by-layer slip structure can be formed at the sliding interface. Oxygen and H2O molecules can make edge dangling bonds and defects passive. Thus the interaction between the nanosheets and the layers of nanosheets is weak and the friction coefficient is low (0.06–0.07). While the friction coefficient increases to 0.14–0.15 in a nitrogen atmosphere due to the interaction of defects generated in the sliding process, the nitrogen molecules with lone pair electrons can only make the nanosheets passive to a certain degree, thus the ordered slip structure is destroyed and friction is higher. This work reveals the influence of environmental molecules on the macroscale tribological performances of graphene and its effect on the microstructure at the sliding interface, which could shed light on the lubricating performance of graphene in environmental atmospheres and help us to understand the tribological behaviors of graphite at the macroscale

    Evolutionary Characterization of the Pandemic H1N1/ 2009 Influenza Virus in Humans Based on Non-Structural Genes

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    The 2009 influenza pandemic had a tremendous social and economic impact. To study the genetic diversity and evolution of the 2009 H1N1 virus, a mutation network for the non-structural (NS) gene of the virus was constructed. Strains of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus could be divided into two categories based on the V123I mutation in the NS1 gene: G1 (characterized as 123 Val) and G2 (characterized as 123 Ile). Sequence homology analysis indicated that one type of NS sequence, primarily isolated from Mexico, was likely the original type in this pandemic. The two genotypes of the virus presented distinctive clustering features in their geographic distributions. These results provide additional insight into the genetics and evolution of human pandemic influenza H1N1

    Preliminary study on involving field irradiation radiotherapy in neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer

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    Background and purpose: The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) plus radical resection. However, the technical aspects for implementing this comprehensive treatment strategy differ, especially in the controversial definition of the radiotherapy target area in NCRT. This study aimed to analyze the feasibility of involving field irradiation (IFI) in NCRT for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis of locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients receiving NCRT in Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from July 2016 to May 2017 showed that the radiotherapy target of all patients was our recommended IFI. The radiotherapy plan was redesigned for the enrolled patients according to the two traditional target delineation of elective node irradiation (ENI) and primary subclinical lesion irradiation (SLI). The dosimetric parameters of the three groups and the dose differences of organ at risk (OAR), such as lungs, heart and spinal cord, were compared, and the relationship between IFI Recurrence pattern and radiation target volumes was analyzed. Results: A total of 26 patients were enrolled. The average target volume of IFI was (277±77) cm3, which was significantly lower compared with ENI and SLI (P&lt;0.05). IFI could significantly reduce relative volume fraction of lungs irradiated more than 5 and 20 Gy (V5 and V20), lungs average dose (Dmean), heart V30, heart Dmean and spinal cord maximum dose (Dmax) (P&lt;0.05), compared with ENI. Lungs V20, lungs Dmean, heart Dmean and spinal cord Dmax decreased by 27.1%, 22.5%, 27.4% and 6.4% compared with ENI, and 24.1%, 22.0%, 24.8% and 5.7% compared with SLI, respectively. After 28 to 69 months of follow-up, 13 patients had recurrence and metastasis, of whom 7 patients had distant metastasis, 4 patients had recurrence in the irradiation field, and 1 patient had local recurrence in the irradiation field. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate and disease-free survival (DFS) rate were 50.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IFI recommended by our institution is feasible to ensure clinical efficacy while significantly reducing the radiation dose of lungs, heart and spinal cord

    Gut microbiota and cardiac arrhythmia

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    One of the most prevalent cardiac diseases is cardiac arrhythmia, however the underlying causes are not entirely understood. There is a lot of proof that gut microbiota (GM) and its metabolites have a significant impact on cardiovascular health. In recent decades, intricate impacts of GM on cardiac arrythmia have been identified as prospective approaches for its prevention, development, treatment, and prognosis. In this review, we discuss about how GM and its metabolites might impact cardiac arrhythmia through a variety of mechanisms. We proposed to explore the relationship between the metabolites produced by GM dysbiosis including short-chain fatty acids(SCFA), Indoxyl sulfate(IS), trimethylamine N-oxide(TMAO), lipopolysaccharides(LPS), phenylacetylglutamine(PAGln), bile acids(BA), and the currently recognized mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias including structural remodeling, electrophysiological remodeling, abnormal nervous system regulation and other disease associated with cardiac arrythmia, detailing the processes involving immune regulation, inflammation, and different types of programmed cell death etc., which presents a key aspect of the microbial-host cross-talk. In addition, how GM and its metabolites differ and change in atrial arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias populations compared with healthy people are also summarized. Then we introduced potential therapeutic strategies including probiotics and prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and immunomodulator etc. In conclusion, the GM has a significant impact on cardiac arrhythmia through a variety of mechanisms, offering a wide range of possible treatment options. The discovery of therapeutic interventions that reduce the risk of cardiac arrhythmia by altering GM and metabolites is a real challenge that lies ahead

    A novel FCTF evaluation and prediction model for food efficacy based on association rule mining

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    IntroductionFood-components-target-function (FCTF) is an evaluation and prediction model based on association rule mining (ARM) and network interaction analysis, which is an innovative exploration of interdisciplinary integration in the food field.MethodsUsing the components as the basis, the targets and functions are comprehensively explored in various databases and platforms under the guidance of the ARM concept. The focused active components, key targets and preferred efficacy are then analyzed by different interaction calculations. The FCTF model is particularly suitable for preliminary studies of medicinal plants in remote and poor areas.ResultsThe FCTF model of the local medicinal food Laoxianghuang focuses on the efficacy of digestive system cancers and neurological diseases, with key targets ACE, PTGS2, CYP2C19 and corresponding active components citronellal, trans-nerolidol, linalool, geraniol, α-terpineol, cadinene and α-pinene.DiscussionCenturies of traditional experience point to the efficacy of Laoxianghuang in alleviating digestive disorders, and our established FCTF model of Laoxianghuang not only demonstrates this but also extends to its possible adjunctive efficacy in neurological diseases, which deserves later exploration. The FCTF model is based on the main line of components to target and efficacy and optimizes the research level from different dimensions and aspects of interaction analysis, hoping to make some contribution to the future development of the food discipline
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