1,710 research outputs found

    Echoes of Inflationary First-Order Phase Transitions in the CMB

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    Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs), such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and the electroweak (EW) ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs) which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG). The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.Comment: 5+6 pages, 4 figures. V2 changed title, added one figure about constraints of Planck2015+BICEP2/Keck data, added references and removed appendix. Accepted by PL

    Intervalley coupling by quantum dot confinement potentials in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

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    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer new opportunities for realizing quantum dots (QDs) in the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) limit. Given the rich control possibilities of electron valley pseudospin discovered in the monolayers, this quantum degree of freedom can be a promising carrier of information for potential quantum spintronics exploiting single electrons in TMD QDs. An outstanding issue is to identify the degree of valley hybridization, due to the QD confinement, which may significantly change the valley physics in QDs from its form in the 2D bulk. Here we perform a systematic study of the intervalley coupling by QD confinement potentials on extended TMD monolayers. We find that the intervalley coupling in such geometry is generically weak due to the vanishing amplitude of the electron wavefunction at the QD boundary, and hence valley hybridization shall be well quenched by the much stronger spin-valley coupling in monolayer TMDs and the QDs can well inherit the valley physics of the 2D bulk. We also discover sensitive dependence of intervalley coupling strength on the central position and the lateral length scales of the confinement potentials, which may possibly allow tuning of intervalley coupling by external controlsComment: 17 pages, 14 figure

    A Novel Genetic Variant in Long Non-coding RNA Gene NEXN-AS1 is Associated with Risk of Lung Cancer

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    Lung cancer etiology is multifactorial, and growing evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important players in lung carcinogenesis. We performed a large-scale meta-analysis of690,564 SNPs in 15,531 autosomal lncRNAs by using datasets from six previously published genome-wideassociation studies (GWASs) from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) consortiumin populations of European ancestry. Previously unreported significant SNPs (P value \u3c 1 × 10−7) were further validated in two additional independent lung cancer GWAS datasets from Harvard University anddeCODE. In the final meta-analysis of all eight GWAS datasets with 17,153 cases and 239,337 controls, a novel risk SNP rs114020893 in the lncRNA NEXN-AS1 region at 1p31.1 remained statistically significant(odds ratio = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.11–1.24; P = 8.31 × 10−9). In further in silico analysis,rs114020893 was predicted to change the secondary structure of the lncRNA. Our finding indicates that SNP rs114020893 of NEXN-AS1 at 1p31.1 may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility

    Detecting Exploit Primitives Automatically for Heap Vulnerabilities on Binary Programs

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    Automated Exploit Generation (AEG) is a well-known difficult task, especially for heap vulnerabilities. Previous works first detected heap vulnerabilities and then searched for exploitable states by using symbolic execution and fuzzing techniques on binary programs. However, it is not always easy to discovery bugs using fuzzing or symbolic technologies and solvable for internal overflow of heap objects. In this paper, we present a solution DEPA to detect exploit primitives based on primitive-crucial-behavior model for heap vulnerabilities. The core of DEPA contains two novel techniques, 1) primitive-crucial-behavior identification through pointer dependence analysis, and 2) exploit primitive determination method which includes triggering both vulnerabilities and exploit primitives. We evaluate DEPA on eleven real-world CTF(capture the flag) programs with heap vulnerabilities and DEPA can discovery arbitrary write and arbitrary jump exploit primitives for ten programs except for program multi-heap. Results showed that primitive-crucial-behavior identification and determining exploit primitives are accurate and effective by using our approach. In addition, DEPA is superior to the state-of-the-art tools in determining exploit primitives for the heap object internal overflowComment: 11 pages 9 figure

    Preparation of graphene film reinforced CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy matrix composites with strength-plasticity synergy via flake powder metallurgy method

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    Inspired by the design principle of pearl structure, a bottom-up flake powder self-assembly arrangement strategy, flake powder metallurgy, is used to prepare graphene films (GFs) reinforced CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy (HEA) matrix composites with a pearl laminated structure. Flaky HEA powder was prepared by ball milling method and homogeneously mixed with Ni plated GFs. Vacuum hot-press sintering (VHPS) technique was carried out to solidify the mixed powders to obtain composites with uniform distribution of GFs(Ni) and flaky HEA. The results show that the bottom-up preparation strategy can effectively fabricate bionic laminated HEA matrix composites, and the composites have a distinct pearly laminated structure. The tensile strength of the composites with 5 vol% GFs(Ni) content reached 834.04 MPa, and the elongation reached 26.58 %. The compressive strength in parallel and perpendicular laminar directions reached 2069.66 MPa and 2418.45 MPa at 50 % strain, respectively. The laminated GFs(Ni)/HEA matrix composites possessed excellent strength and maintained good plasticity. In this study, the strengthening and toughening mechanism of the laminated GFs(Ni)/HEA matrix composites is discussed in detail, and the results show that the laminated structure and GFs(Ni) are favorable for the hardening and strengthening of the HEA matrix
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