571 research outputs found

    The structure of TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants

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    Aims. Two-dimensional MHD simulations are used to model the emission properties of TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) and to explore their nature. Methods. In the leptonic scenario for the TeV emission, the ő≥\gamma-ray emission is produced via Inverse Compton scattering of background soft photons by high-energy electrons accelerated by the shocks of the SNRs. The TeV emissivity is proportional to the magnetic field energy density and MHD simulations can be used to model the TeV structure of such remnants directly. 2D MHD simulations for SNRs are then performed under the assumption that the ambient interstellar medium is turbulent with the magnetic field and density fluctuations following a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum. Results. (1) As expected, these simulations confirm early 1D and 2D modelings of these sources, namely the hydrodynamical evolution of the shock waves and amplification of magnetic field by Rayleigh-Taylor convective flows and by shocks propagating in a turbulent medium; (2) We reproduce rather complex morphological structure for ő≥\gamma-rays, suggesting intrinsic variations of the source morphology not related to the structure of the progenitor and environment; (3)The observed radial profile of several remnants are well reproduced with an ambient medium density of 0.1‚ąí10.1-1 cm‚ąí3^{-3}. An even lower ambient density leads to a sharper drop of the TeV brightness with radius than what is observed near the outer edge of these remnants. Conclusions. In a turbulent background medium, we can reproduce the observed characteristics of several shell-type TeV SNRs with reasonable parameters except for a higher ambient density than that inferred from X-ray observations.Comment: 7pages,12figures,Accepted for publication in A&A. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1306.439

    Transcribing Latin Manuscripts in Respect to Linguistics

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    Current text detection software, although can transcribe modern languages with high accuracy, has flaws detecting texts and transcribing original Latin manuscripts sufficiently. This paper proposes a general approach for transcribing Latin manuscripts in respect to linguistics and develops a system to transcribe Latin manuscripts containing intricate abbreviations, which combines basic object detection algorithms with linguistics. We used methods from image processing and made changes based on the characteristics of Latin.This item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at [email protected]

    Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>Panax notoginseng </it>(Burk) F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the <it>Araliacease </it>family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in <it>P. notoginseng</it>. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the <it>Panax </it>species are largely unknown.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for <it>P. notoginseng </it>root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS <it>De Novo </it>Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS), which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old <it>P. notoginseng</it>. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158) and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082) gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR) were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for <it>P. notoginseng </it>root acquired by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The candidate genes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis, including the putative CYP450s and UGTs, were obtained in this study. Additionally, the identification of SSRs provided plenty of genetic makers for molecular breeding and genetics applications in this species. These data will provide information on gene discovery, transcriptional regulation and marker-assisted selection for <it>P. notoginseng</it>. The dataset establishes an important foundation for the study with the purpose of ensuring adequate drug resources for this species.</p

    Dispersive solid-phase microextraction with graphene oxide based molecularly imprinted polymers for determining bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in environmental water

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    A novel graphene oxide-molecularly imprinted polymers (GO-MIPs) was prepared and applied for selective extraction and preconcentration of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in environmental water samples by using the dispersive solid-phase microextraction (DSPME) method. The GO-MIPs was synthesized via precipitation polymerization using GO, DEHP, methacrylic acid, and ethylene dimethacrylate as supporting materials, template molecules, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The prepared GO-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The GO-MIPs-DSPME conditions including type and volume of elution solvents, adsorbents amount, initial concentration of DEHP, pH and ionic strength of water samples were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the DEHP was selectively and effectively extracted in real water samples and enrichment factors of over 100-fold were achieved. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients (R2) over 0.999 and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.92 ng mL‚ąí1. The average recoveries of the spiked samples at three concentration levels of DEHP ranged from 82% to 92% with the relative standard deviations less than 6.7%. The results indicated that the proposed GO-MIPs-DSPME extraction protocol combined with HPLC-UV determination could be applied for selective and sensitive analysis of trace DEHP phthalate in environmental water samples

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A search is presented for new particles produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, using events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb(-1), collected in 2017-2018 with the CMS detector. Machine learning techniques are used to define separate categories for events with narrow jets from initial-state radiation and events with large-radius jets consistent with a hadronic decay of a W or Z boson. A statistical combination is made with an earlier search based on a data sample of 36 fb(-1), collected in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed with respect to the standard model background expectation determined from control samples in data. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the branching fraction of an invisible decay of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on simplified models of dark matter, on first-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to quarks and neutrinos, and on models with large extra dimensions. Several of the new limits, specifically for spin-1 dark matter mediators, pseudoscalar mediators, colored mediators, and leptoquarks, are the most restrictive to date.Peer reviewe

    Combined searches for the production of supersymmetric top quark partners in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV