389,172 research outputs found

    Universe Models with a Variable Cosmological "Constant" and a "Big Bounce"

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    We present a rich class of exact solutions which contains radiation-dominated and matter-dominated models for the early and late universe. They include a variable cosmological ``constant'' which is derived from a higher dimension and manifests itself in spacetime as an energy density for the vacuum. This is in agreement with observational data and is compatible with extensions of general relativity to string and membrane theory. Our solutions are also typified by a non-singular ``big bounce'' (as opposed to a singular big bang), where matter is created as in inflationary cosmology.Comment: 17 pages, 2 figures, AASTEX. To appear in Ap

    A Quasi-Spherical Gravitational Wave Solution in Kaluza-Klein Theory

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    An exact solution of the source-free Kaluza-Klein field equations is presented. It is a 5D generalization of the Robinson-Trautman quasi-spherical gravitational wave with a cosmological constant. The properties of the 5D solution are briefly described.Comment: 10 pages Latex, Revtex, submitted to GR

    What can gauge-gravity duality teach us about condensed matter physics?

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    I discuss the impact of gauge-gravity duality on our understanding of two classes of systems: conformal quantum matter and compressible quantum matter. The first conformal class includes systems, such as the boson Hubbard model in two spatial dimensions, which display quantum critical points described by conformal field theories. Questions associated with non-zero temperature dynamics and transport are difficult to answer using conventional field theoretic methods. I argue that many of these can be addressed systematically using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss the prospects for reliable computation of low frequency correlations. Compressible quantum matter is characterized by the smooth dependence of the charge density, associated with a global U(1) symmetry, upon a chemical potential. Familiar examples are solids, superfluids, and Fermi liquids, but there are more exotic possibilities involving deconfined phases of gauge fields in the presence of Fermi surfaces. I survey the compressible systems studied using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss their relationship to the condensed matter classification of such states. The gravity methods offer hope of a deeper understanding of exotic and strongly-coupled compressible quantum states.Comment: 34 pages, 11 figures + 16 pages of Supplementary Material with 4 figures; to appear in Annual Reviews of Condensed Matter Physics; (v2) add a figure, and clarifications; (v3) final version; (v4) small correction
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