12,003 research outputs found

    Jet opening angles and gamma-ray brightness of AGN

    Full text link
    We have investigated the differences in apparent opening angles between the parsec-scale jets of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first three months of operations and those of non-LAT-detected AGN. We used 15.4 GHz VLBA observations of sources from the 2 cm VLBA MOJAVE program, a subset of which comprise the statistically complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample. We determined the apparent opening angles by analyzing transverse jet profiles from the data in the image plane and by applying a model fitting technique to the data in the (u,v) plane. Both methods provided comparable opening angle estimates. The apparent opening angles of gamma-ray bright blazars are preferentially larger than those of gamma-ray weak sources. At the same time, we have found the two groups to have similar intrinsic opening angle distributions, based on a smaller subset of sources. This suggests that the jets in gamma-ray bright AGN are oriented at preferentially smaller angles to the line of sight resulting in a stronger relativistic beaming. The intrinsic jet opening angle and bulk flow Lorentz factor are found to be inversely proportional, as predicted by standard models of compact relativistic jets. If a gas dynamical jet acceleration model is assumed, the ratio of the initial pressure of the plasma in the core region P_0 to the external pressure P_ext lies within the range 1.1 to 34.6, with a best fit estimate of P_0/P_ext=2.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; accepted for publication in the A&A Letters; table in electronic form can be extracted from the preprint sourc

    MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in AGN with VLBA Experiments. VII. Blazar Jet Acceleration

    Full text link
    We discuss acceleration measurements for a large sample of extragalactic radio jets from the MOJAVE program which studies the parsec-scale jet structure and kinematics of a complete, flux-density-limited sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Accelerations are measured from the apparent motion of individual jet features or "components" which may represent patterns in the jet flow. We find that significant accelerations are common both parallel and perpendicular to the observed component velocities. Parallel accelerations, representing changes in apparent speed, are generally larger than perpendicular acceleration that represent changes in apparent direction. The trend for larger parallel accelerations indicates that a significant fraction of these changes in apparent speed are due to changes in intrinsic speed of the component rather than changes in direction to the line of sight. We find an overall tendency for components with increasing apparent speed to be closer to the base of their jets than components with decreasing apparent speed. This suggests a link between the observed pattern motions and the underlying flow which, in some cases, may increase in speed close to the base and decrease in speed further out; however, common hydro-dynamical processes for propagating shocks may also play a role. About half of the components show "non-radial" motion, or a misalignment between the component's structural position angle and its velocity direction, and these misalignments generally better align the component motion with the downstream emission. Perpendicular accelerations are closely linked with non-radial motion. When observed together, perpendicular accelerations are usually in the correct direction to have caused the observed misalignment.Comment: 17 pages, 11 figures, 1 table, accepted by the Astrophysical Journa

    Coalescence of Liquid Drops

    Get PDF
    When two drops of radius RR touch, surface tension drives an initially singular motion which joins them into a bigger drop with smaller surface area. This motion is always viscously dominated at early times. We focus on the early-time behavior of the radius \rmn of the small bridge between the two drops. The flow is driven by a highly curved meniscus of length 2\pi \rmn and width \Delta\ll\rmn around the bridge, from which we conclude that the leading-order problem is asymptotically equivalent to its two-dimensional counterpart. An exact two-dimensional solution for the case of inviscid surroundings [Hopper, J. Fluid Mech. 213{\bf 213}, 349 (1990)] shows that \Delta \propto \rmn^3 and \rmn \sim (t\gamma/\pi\eta)\ln [t\gamma/(\eta R)]; and thus the same is true in three dimensions. The case of coalescence with an external viscous fluid is also studied in detail both analytically and numerically. A significantly different structure is found in which the outer fluid forms a toroidal bubble of radius \Delta \propto \rmn^{3/2} at the meniscus and \rmn \sim (t\gamma/4\pi\eta) \ln [t\gamma/(\eta R)]. This basic difference is due to the presence of the outer fluid viscosity, however small. With lengths scaled by RR a full description of the asymptotic flow for \rmn(t)\ll1 involves matching of lengthscales of order \rmn^2, \rmn^{3/2}, \rmn,1andprobably, 1 and probably \rmn^{7/4}$.Comment: 36 pages, including 9 figure

    MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with VLBA Experiments. VI. Kinematics Analysis of a Complete Sample of Blazar Jets

    Get PDF
    We discuss the jet kinematics of a complete flux-density-limited sample of 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) resulting from a 13 year program to investigate the structure and evolution of parsec-scale jet phenomena. Our analysis is based on new 2 cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images obtained between 2002 and 2007, but includes our previously published observations made at the same wavelength, and is supplemented by VLBA archive data. In all, we have used 2424 images spanning the years 1994-2007 to study and determine the motions of 526 separate jet features in 127 jets. The data quality and temporal coverage (a median of 15 epochs per source) of this complete AGN jet sample represents a significant advance over previous kinematics surveys. In all but five AGNs, the jets appear one-sided, most likely the result of differential Doppler boosting. In general the observed motions are directed along the jet ridge line, outward from the optically thick core feature. We directly observe changes in speed and/or direction in one third of the well-sampled jet components in our survey. While there is some spread in the apparent speeds of separate features within an individual jet, the dispersion is about three times smaller than the overall dispersion of speeds among all jets. This supports the idea that there is a characteristic flow that describes each jet, which we have characterized by the fastest observed component speed. The observed maximum speed distribution is peaked at ~10c, with a tail that extends out to ~50c. This requires a distribution of intrinsic Lorentz factors in the parent population that range up to ~50. We also note the presence of some rare low-pattern speeds or even stationary features in otherwise rapidly flowing jets... (abridged)Comment: 19 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables, accepted by the Astronomical Journal; online only material is available from http://www.cv.nrao.edu/2cmVLBA/pub/MOJAVE_VI_suppl.zi

    纬-Ray and Parsec-scale Jet Properties of a Complete Sample of Blazars From the Mojave Program

    Get PDF
    We investigate the Fermi Large Area Telescope 纬-ray and 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array radio properties of a joint 纬-ray and radio-selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 August 4-2009 July 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination 鈥30掳 during this period, and thus probes the full range of 纬-ray loudness (纬-ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least 4 orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing 纬-ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the 纬-ray emission in these BL Lac objects over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED-peak-纬-ray-loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lac objects have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lac objects or FSRQs in our sample

    Convective shutdown in a porous medium at high Rayleigh number

    Get PDF
    Convection in a closed domain driven by a dense buoyancy source along the upper boundary soon starts to wane owing to the increase of the average interior density. In this paper, theoretical and numerical models are developed of the subsequent long period of shutdown of convection in a two-dimensional porous medium at high Rayleigh number Ra\mathit{Ra}. The aims of this paper are twofold. Firstly, the relationship between this slowly evolving 鈥榦ne-sided鈥 shutdown system and the statistically steady 鈥榯wo-sided鈥 Rayleigh鈥揃茅nard (RB) cell is investigated. Numerical measurements of the Nusselt number Nu\mathit{Nu} from an RB cell (Hewitt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, 224503) are very well described by the simple parametrization Nu=2.75+0.0069Ra\mathit{Nu}= 2. 75+ 0. 0069\mathit{Ra}. This parametrization is used in theoretical box models of the one-sided shutdown system and found to give excellent agreement with high-resolution numerical simulations of this system. The dynamical structure of shutdown can also be accurately predicted by measurements from an RB cell. Results are presented for a general power-law equation of state. Secondly, these ideas are extended to model more complex physical systems, which comprise two fluid layers with an equation of state such that the solution that forms at the (moving) interface is more dense than either layer. The two fluids are either immiscible or miscible. Theoretical box models compare well with numerical simulations in the case of a flat interface between the fluids. Experimental results from a Hele-Shaw cell and numerical simulations both show that interfacial deformation can dramatically enhance the convective flux. The applicability of these results to the convective dissolution of geologically sequestered CO2{\mathrm{CO} }_{2} in a saline aquifer is discussed