271 research outputs found

    World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one

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    Effects of stocking density and grading on behaviour, cannibalism and performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fry

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    African catfish hatcheries in Europe require economical fry availability throughout the year. Purpose of this study was to identify the best suitable stocking density and appropriate grading regime for African catfish fry of around 0.1 g in 3 experiments (E1, E2 and E3). In E1, 3 stocking densities (10, 20 and 30 fry L−1) without grading were compared for behaviour, mortality, cannibals and growth. In E2, additional daily manual grading removed shooters or potential cannibals. In E3, 3 different handling procedures (manual grading on days 2, 4, 6 and 8: 2dH, manual grading on day 5: 5dH, self-grading on day 5: 5dS) under highest stocking density (30 fish L−1) were applied. Each experiment lasted 10 days and the fish had a mean initial weight of 0.08, 0.06 and 0.06 g fish−1, respectively. In E1 and E2 stock activity increased with increasing stocking density but aggressive behaviour was lowest at the higher stocking densities. The stocking density had no significant effect on mortality rates or growth performance from 10 to 30 fish L−1 between groups. However, regular removal of cannibals reduced the total mean mortality rate from 25 % in E1 to less than 5 % in E2 and E3. The mean feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved from 0.68 in E1 to ≤ 0.55 in E2 and E3. The tested handling procedures revealed no significant differences in fry behaviour and performance, while final stocking densities increased with decreasing handling stress. This suggests that African catfish fry of about 0.1 g are kept optimally at high stocking densities of 30 fish L−1 or 30,000 fry m−3 inside regular breeding containments, with effective self-grading every 5 days in order to reduce total mortality, maximize production and minimize the amount of labor

    Aquaponics (s.l.) Production of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) with African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Northern Germany

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    Aquaponics production of spearmint (Mentha spicata) was evaluated under commercial grow-out conditions of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Northern Germany (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania). Fish batch production under different stocking densities in an extensive aquacultural unit (EAU) and an intensive aquacultural unit (IAU) was connected to conventional plant cultivation on ebb-and-flood planting tables and compared to a liquid fertilizer control. The best growth parameters of M. spicata were found under the intensive stocking density of C. gariepinus (IAU), resulting in a plant leaf area of 10.9 ± 2.5 cm2, leaf length of 8.6 ± 1.6 cm, and a cut fresh biomass from aboveground of 31.8 ± 13.8 g/plant, compared to the EAU (5.6 ± 2.1 cm2; 5.4 ± 1.4 cm; 17.4 ± 4.7 g/plant) and the control (5.7 ± 2.2 cm2; 5.5 ± 1.4 cm; 11.2 ± 5.3 g/plant). The fresh biomass of the whole plants was not significantly different between the EAU (165.5 ± 71.7 g/plant) and the IAU (190.7 ± 105.6 g/plant), though the latter gained more weight. The initial fish number ratio between the EAU and the IAU of 1/4 increased the M. spicata leaf area by twofold in the IAU. Our results demonstrate that aquaponics (s.l.) production of M. spicata is possible under the direct use of effluent waters from intensive African catfish cultivation without the addition of any liquid fertilizer

    Effects of Stocking Density, Size, and External Stress on Growth and Welfare of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in a Commercial RAS

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    The effects of semi-intensive (100 kg m−3), intensive (200 kg m−3), and super-intensive (400 kg m−3) stocking densities on the growth and welfare of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were investigated under commercial production conditions. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and selected transcripts following a stress challenge, lactate, as well as skin lesions, were analyzed at regular intervals (from 12 g juveniles to 1.5–2.0 kg). The fish grew well, but after 23 weeks, the semi-intensively stocked fish had a mean final weight of 1,830.5 g, significantly higher than the super-intensively stocked fish with 1,615.4 g, and considerably higher than the intensively stocked fish with 1,664.8 g (p > 0.05). Cortisol and glucose responses significantly differed between stressed and unstressed fish, but not between treatment groups. An unforeseen external stressor (nearby demolition noise) caused stress responses among all treatment groups, but was similarly coped with. Mortality ranged between 3.8–9.2%. In the juveniles, skin lesions were reduced under intensive or super-intensive densities, with the least under semi-intensive densities in outgrown fish. Expression profiles of 22 genes were compared in the spleen at semi-intensive and super-intensive densities. The transcript concentrations of most genes remained unchanged, except for slc39a8 and mtf1, which were significantly downregulated in stressed catfish under semi-intensive conditions. We demonstrated that African catfish growth performance and welfare depend on age and stocking density, also reacting to demolition noise. This supports farm management to optimize stocking densities during the grow-out of African catfish in RAS and suggests avoiding external stress

    Effects of Stocking Density, Size, and External Stress on Growth and Welfare of African Catfish (<i>Clarias gariepinus</i> Burchell, 1822) in a Commercial RAS

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    The effects of semi-intensive (100 kg m−3), intensive (200 kg m−3), and super-intensive (400 kg m−3) stocking densities on the growth and welfare of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were investigated under commercial production conditions. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and selected transcripts following a stress challenge, lactate, as well as skin lesions, were analyzed at regular intervals (from 12 g juveniles to 1.5–2.0 kg). The fish grew well, but after 23 weeks, the semi-intensively stocked fish had a mean final weight of 1830.5 g, significantly higher than the super-intensively stocked fish with 1615.4 g, and considerably higher than the intensively stocked fish with 1664.8 g (p > 0.05). Cortisol and glucose responses significantly differed between stressed and unstressed fish, but not between treatment groups. An unforeseen external stressor (nearby demolition noise) caused stress responses among all treatment groups, but was similarly coped with. Mortality ranged between 3.8–9.2%. In the juveniles, skin lesions were reduced under intensive or super-intensive densities, with the least under semi-intensive densities in outgrown fish. Expression profiles of 22 genes were compared in the spleen at semi-intensive and super-intensive densities. The transcript concentrations of most genes remained unchanged, except for slc39a8 and mtf1, which were significantly downregulated in stressed catfish under semi-intensive conditions. We demonstrated that African catfish growth performance and welfare depend on age and stocking density, also reacting to demolition noise. This supports farm management to optimize stocking densities during the grow-out of African catfish in RAS and suggests avoiding external stress

    Growth and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) under Dietary Supplementation with Mixed-Layer Clay Mineral Montmorillonite-Illite/Muscovite in Commercial Aquaculture

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    Juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were reared within two experiments (a research facility and a local catfish farm, E1 and E2, respectively) for 102 d each under commercial recirculating aquaculture conditions. The mixed-layer clay mineral montmorillonite&ndash;illite/muscovite (1g557) was applied as a feed additive at concentrations of 0.5% and 2.0%, which were compared with an unsupplemented control (0.0%) over 70 d. For E1, feeding was automatic at night, while E2 was fed manually during the day. The growth and physiological welfare parameters of the fish were monitored, including the mortality, skin lesions, stress responses after confinement (plasma cortisol and glucose), and additional blood parameters. Tendentially, the most efficient growth in both the experiments was observed in the 0.5% groups, which performed slightly better than the controls (E1: 0.8% and E2: 3.2%) despite a lower nutrient content (p &gt; 0.05). In E1, the negative skewness of the leptokurtic distribution also revealed the highest number of larger-sized fish per batch. Mortality was low in all the treatment groups (E1 control/0.5%/2.0%: 3.6%/4.9%/2.9%; E2 control/0.5%: 2.6%/5.5%). After only 29 d in E1, the number of skin lesions per fish decreased significantly (p &lt; 0.05 between each of the 0.5% and 2.0% groups, compared to the control (E1 control/0.5%/2.0%: 1.2/0.8/0.8). In both E1 and E2, the number of lesions per fish decreased even further after 70 d, significantly between the treatment groups and the control (E1 control/0.5%/2.0%: 0.9/0.4/0.5 and E2 control/0.5%: 0.6/0.3). In E1, the cortisol and glucose concentrations increased strongly in all the groups due to the induced stress, whereas this was not evident in E2 based on the different sampling procedure. The additional blood parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, urea, calcium, phosphate, total protein, leucocytes, erythrocytes, hematocrit, cholesterol, triglycerides, sodium, potassium, and chloride) revealed no significant difference between the treatment groups in either experiment, indicating no negative effects of 1g557 on the organs or metabolism of the fish. Supplementation with 0.5% 1g557 in the common commercial feeds for African catfish increases growth performance (p &gt; 0.05), reduces size variance, and supports fish welfare under different commercial aquaculture conditions in the present study

    Effects of dissolved potassium on growth performance, body composition, and welfare of juvenile african catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

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    Optimal crop production in aquaponics is influenced by water pH and potassium concen-trations. The addition of potassium hydroxide (KOH) into the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) may benefit aquaponics by increasing the water pH for better biofilter activity and supplementing K for better plant growth and quality. We investigated the growth, feed conversion, body composition and welfare indicators of juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) treated with four concentrations of K (K0 = 2, K200 = 218, K400 = 418, and K600 = 671 mg L−1). While growth, feed conversion and final body composition were unaffected, the feeding time and individual resting significantly increased with increasing K+. The swimming activity and agonistic behavior were reduced significantly under increased concentrations of K+. Leftover feed and the highest number of skin lesions were observed under K600. We suggest that K+ concentrations between 200 and 400 mg L−1 can improve the welfare status of juvenile African catfish. This enables the application of KOH in RAS to supply alkalinity to achieve optimum nitrification at minimum water exchange and improve the nutritional profile of the process water with benefits for the welfare status of African catfish and aquaponics plant production and quality.</p

    Commercial African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: Assessment of Element and Energy Pathways with Special Focus on the Phosphorus Cycle

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    The reuse of effluent waters and sediments from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) recirculation aquaculture systems requires a deeper understanding of the nutrient and energy flows and material pathways. Three semi-commercial systems, differing in stocking density, were sampled for nutritive and pollutant elements of the input- (tap water, feed) and output pathways (fillet, carcass, process water, sediments) by ICP-OES/MS and calorimetry. Highly water-soluble elements, e.g., potassium, accumulated in the water, whereas iron, copper, chromium and uranium where found in the solids. Feed derived phosphorous was accounted for, 58.3&ndash;64.2% inside the fish, 9.7&ndash;19.3% in sediments, and small amounts 9.6&ndash;15.5% in the process waters. A total of 7.1&ndash;9.9% of the feed accumulated as dry matter in the sediments, comprising 5.5&ndash;8.7% total organic carbon and 3.7&ndash;5.2% nitrogen. A total of 44.5&ndash;47.1% of the feed energy was found in the fish and 5.7&ndash;7.7% in the sediments. For reuse of water and nutrients in hydroponics, the macro-nutrients potassium, nitrate, phosphorus and the micro-nutrient iron were deficient when compared with generalized recommendations for plant nutrition. Low energy contents and C/N-ratio restrict the solely use of African catfish solids for biogas production or vermiculture. Using the outputs both for biogas supplement and general fertilizer in aquaponics farming (s.l.) (combined with additional nutrients) appears possible

    Measurement of inclusive J/ψ\psi pair production cross section in pp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV

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    International audienceThe production cross section of inclusive J/ψ\psi pairs in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=13\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV is measured with ALICE. The measurement is performed for J/ψ\psi in the rapidity interval 2.502.5 0. The production cross section of inclusive J/ψ\psi pairs is reported to be 10.3±2.3(stat.)±1.3(syst.)10.3 \pm 2.3 {\rm (stat.)} \pm 1.3 {\rm (syst.)} nb in this kinematic interval. The contribution from non-prompt J/ψ\psi (i.e. originated from beauty-hadron decays) to the inclusive sample is evaluated. The results are discussed and compared with data
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