299 research outputs found

    B cells in Sjögren's syndrome: indications for disturbed selection and differentiation in ectopic lymphoid tissue

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    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by specific pathological features. A hallmark of pSS is B-cell hyperactivity as manifested by the production of autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, formation of ectopic lymphoid structures within the inflamed tissues, and enhanced risk of B-cell lymphoma. Changes in the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets and differences in post-recombination processes of immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) gene usage are also characteristic features of pSS. Comparison of B cells from the peripheral blood and salivary glands of patients with pSS with regard to their expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR5, and their migratory capacity towards the corresponding ligands, CXCL12 and CXCL13, provide a mechanism for the prominent accumulation of CXCR4+CXCR5+ memory B cells in the inflamed glands. Glandular B cells expressing distinct features of IgV light and heavy chain rearrangements, (re)circulating B cells with increased mutations of cμ transcripts in both CD27- and CD27+ memory B-cell subsets, and enhanced frequencies of individual peripheral B cells containing IgV heavy chain transcripts of multiple isotypes indicate disordered selection and incomplete differentiation processes of B cells in the inflamed tissues in pSS. This may possibly be related to a lack of appropriate censoring mechanisms or different B-cell activation pathways within the ectopic lymphoid structures of the inflamed tissues. These findings add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this autoimmune inflammatory disorder and may result in new therapeutic approaches

    Mechanisms of B cell autoimmunity in SLE

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    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is known to be associated with polyclonal B-cell hyperreactivity. The underlying causes of the diffuse B-cell over-reactivity are unclear, but potential candidates include (a) intrinsic hyper-reactivity leading to polyclonal B-cell activation with disturbed activation thresholds and ineffective negative selection; (b) lack of immunoregulatory functions; (c) secondary effects of an overactive inflammatory environment, such as overactive germinal center and ectopic follicular activity; and/or (d) disturbed cytokine production by non-B immune cells. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and may operate to varying extents and at varying times in SLE. Phenotypic and molecular studies as well as the results of recent clinical trials have begun to provide new insights to address these possibilities. Of importance, new information has made it possible to distinguish between the contribution played by abnormalities in central checkpoints that could lead to a pre-immune repertoire enriched in autoreactive B cells, on the one hand, and the possibility that autoimmunity arises in the periphery from somatic hypermutation and abnormal selection during T cell-dependent B-cell responses on the other. There is an intriguing possibility that apoptotic material bound to the surface of follicular dendritic cells positively selects autoreactive B cells that arise from non-autoreactive B-cell precursors as a result of somatic hypermutation and thereby promotes the peripheral emergence of autoimmunity
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