227 research outputs found

    Vitamin D in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Cancer: A Scoping Review

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    Introduction: Oral cancer is a serious health problem with an increasing incidence worldwide. Researchers have studied the potential anti-cancerous action of vitamin D and its association with several cancers including oral cancer. The purpose of this scoping review is to synthesize the existing literature on the role of vitamin D on oral cancer. Methods: A scoping review of the literature was conducted using the framework developed by Arkey and O’Malley and the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Nine databases were searched for peer-reviewed human studies published in English that either investigated the association of vitamin D with, or its impact on either the prevention or treatment of oral cancer. The authors then extracted data using a predefined form to summarize information about article type, study design, participant characteristics, interventions, and outcomes. Results: Fifteen articles met the review criteria. Among the 15 studies, 11 were case–control, 3 were cohort studies, and 1 was a clinical trial. In four studies, the evidence supported a preventive action of vitamin D against oral cancer and a reduction in the negative side effects associated with chemo- and radiotherapy. Several studies that focused on genetic polymorphisms and the expression of the 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR) suggested significant associations with vitamin D and increased oral cancer risk and worse survival rates. In contrast, two studies did not reveal a strong association between vitamin D and oral cancer. Conclusions: The current evidence suggests an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of oral cancer. VDR gene polymorphisms might also be a part of future preventive and therapeutic strategies against oral cancer. Carefully designed studies are required to explore and define what role, if any, vitamin D might play in the prevention and treatment of oral cancer

    Association between Fluoride Exposure and Blood pressure

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    Objectives: This study investigated whether fluoride was associated with an increased prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in the United States. Methods: The study sample consisted of 2015–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants aged 13–17 years. Independent-samples t-tests, Chi-square tests, and regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 814 participants met the study criteria. The findings showed that the proportion of patients with high levels of water or plasma fluoride in the high BP group was higher than that in the normal BP group. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, neither water nor plasma fluoride levels were significantly associated with a high BP. Conclusions: This study did not find an association between either water or plasma fluoride levels and high BP. Further study is needed to exclude a dose dependent effect at higher levels of fluoride

    A National Study Exploring the Association Between Fluoride Levels and Dental Fluorosis

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    Importance: While the effects of fluoride on health have been widely researched, fewer high-quality studies examine the association of fluoride levels in water and dental fluorosis. Objective: To investigate the association between fluoride exposure from drinking water and dental fluorosis. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional study used the 2013-2014 and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2016). NHANES uses a complex sampling technique to develop nationally representative sample estimates of the US population that consists of interviews and physical assessments. Children and adolescents aged 6 to 15 years were included because NHANES contains their data for all 3 forms of fluoride measures: plasma fluoride levels, water levels of fluoride, and dietary fluoride supplementation. Data were analyzed from January 1 to April 30, 2023. Exposures: Water and plasma fluoride levels were measured by laboratory personnel. Dietary fluoride supplement data were self-reported. Main outcomes and measures: The Dean's Fluorosis Index was used to evaluate fluorosis status for each tooth. The dental fluorosis severity value was based on the second most affected tooth. Independent variables included plasma and water fluoride concentrations and dietary fluoride supplementation. An independent samples t test was used to compare fluoride exposures between groups, and Pearson correlation assessed the association between plasma and water fluoride levels. To assess whether fluoride exposures were associated with dental fluorosis, logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: There were 1543 participants in the 2013-2014 NHANES cycle (weighted proportion male, 51.9%; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.7] years) and 1452 in the 2015-2016 cycle (weighted proportion male, 52.6%; mean [SD] age, 11.1 [2.8] years). A weighted 87.3% exhibited some degree of fluorosis in the 2013-2014 cycle and 68.2% in the 2015-2016 cycle. Higher fluoride levels in water and plasma were significantly associated with higher odds of dental fluorosis (adjusted odds ratios, 2.378 [95% CI, 2.372-2.383] in the 2013-2014 cycle and 1.568 [95% CI, 1.564-1.571] in the 2015-2016 cycle). Conclusions and relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that exposure to higher concentrations of fluoride in water and having higher plasma levels of fluoride were associated with a greater risk of dental fluorosis. Further research can help policy makers develop policies that balance substantial caries prevention with the risk of dental fluorosis.</p

    Morinda Citrifolia L. (noni) Improves the Quality of Life in Adults with Osteoarthritis

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    Background: Morinda citrifolia Linn (noni), as a “pain killer”, has been used as a traditional medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years. It was reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects including analgesic and anti-inflammation. The in-vitro and in vivoanti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of noni juice (NJ) suggest that NJ may be a useful adjunctive treatment for osteoarthritis (OA). In this pilot study we explored whether NJ improves the symptoms and Quality of Life (QoL) for adults with OA. We also sought to evaluate the tolerability and safety of NJ for patients with OA in a primary care setting. Methods: This was an open label three-month intervention pilot study. Data were collected by pre/post intervention survey and laboratory testing. Inclusion criteria were: adults of both sexes aged 40 to 75, with a diagnosis of OA on the hip or knee by x-ray examination provided by their primary care physician, not on prescription medicine for OA, and who were willing to drink 3 oz of NJ a day for 90 days. Results: Of the 64 questions measuring different aspects of QoL asked on the pre/post survey, 49 (77%) had significant pre/post mean scale differences as measured by independent t-test. The OA patients reported being significantly more satisfied with their current health conditions including mobility, walking and bending, hand, finger, and arm functions, household tasks, social activity, arthritis pain, work ability, level of tension, and mood. The study participants were also more positive about their future health and reported taking less over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers. Pre/post laboratory testing including: lipid panel, liver and kidney functions were in the normal ranges. High Sensitive C Reactive Protein (hsCRP), an inflammatory biomarker, was reduced by 10% after the intervention

    Factors Associated with Periodontitis in Younger Individuals: A Scoping Review

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    Periodontitis is a disease that affects many young adults, and if left untreated, it can have lasting and permanent effects on an individual’s oral health. The purpose of this scoping review was to review the recent literature to identify factors that place young individuals at risk of stage II or III periodontitis. Using the PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews, three databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed human studies published in English that investigated risk factors associated with stage II and/or III periodontitis in individuals less than 40 years of age. This review excluded abstracts, literature reviews, including narrative, scoping, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses, conference proceedings, letters to the editor, and editorials. The authors then extracted data from the relevant studies using a predefined form to summarize the aims, design, results, risk factors examined, and the type and severity of periodontitis. Among a total of 2676 articles screened, only three articles met the review’s inclusion criteria. Of these articles, one was a longitudinal case-control study and two were cross-sectional studies. Identified risk factors associated with stage II or III periodontitis included self-reported bleeding when brushing, low bone mineral density, being overweight, and smoking in young adults. Of note, only three studies met the inclusion criteria, suggesting a gap in the research literature

    E-cigarette Addiction and Harm perception: Does initiation flavor choice matter?

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    Introduction The 21st century was marked by a dramatic increase in adolescent e-cigarette use in the United States (US). The popularity of non-traditional flavor types, including fruit and pastry, is thought to contribute toward growing product use nationally, leading to a variety of federal and state regulations limiting the use of non-traditional flavors in the US. The relationship between flavor type and increased adolescent use suggests a possible link between flavor use and addiction and harm perception. This study assessed if the flavor type used when initiating e-cigarette use predicted addiction and harm perceptions. Methods The study utilized data from the multi-wave youth Population Assessment of Tobacco Health Study. It explored the impact initiating e-cigarette use with traditional versus non-traditional flavor types among cigarette users on the outcome variables: e-cigarette addiction and harm perception. Both e-cigarette addiction and harm perception were measured using self-report, Likert scale questionnaires. Descriptive statistics characterized the study variables and linear regression analyses performed to test whether flavor initiation type is associated with addiction and harm perception. Results The study sample consisted of 1,043 youth (weighted N = 1,873,617) aged 12 to 17 years who reported at least one instance of e-cigarette use. After adjusting for age, age of onset, sex, race and annual household income there was no statistically significant difference in addiction levels between those initiating with traditional versus non-traditional flavors (p = 0.294). Similarly, traditional versus non-traditional flavor initiation did not show a statistically significant difference in adolescent e-cigarette harm perceptions (p = 0.601). Conclusions Traditionally flavored e-cigarette initiation produces similar risk for addiction and harm perceptions as non-traditionally flavored initiation. These findings suggest that banning non-traditional flavors alone may be ineffective in curbing e-cigarette addiction and harm perception. Additional research is needed to better understand which e-cigarette product characteristics and behaviors may be associated with greater addiction and reduced harm perceptions

    Correction of hyperglycemia after surgery for diabetic foot infection and its association with clinical outcomes

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    Objective: Constantly high glycemia levels might influence outcomes in the management of patients undergoing surgery for diabetic foot infections (DFI). In our center for DFI, we performed a case-control study using a multivariate Cox regression model. Patients developing a new DFI could participate in the study several times. Results: Among 1013 different DFI episodes in 586 individual adult patients (type I diabetes 148 episodes [15%], 882 [87%] with osteomyelitis; median antibiotic therapy of 21 days), professional diabetes counselling was provided by a specialized diabetes nurse in 195 episodes (19%). At admission, blood glucose levels were elevated in 110 episodes (11%). Treatments normalized glycemia on postoperative day 3 in 353 episodes (35%) and on day 7 for 321 (32%) episodes. Glycemia levels entirely normalized for 367 episodes (36%) until the end of hospitalization. Overall, treatment of DFI episodes failed in 255 of 1013 cases (25%), requiring surgical revision. By multivariate analysis, neither the provision of diabetes counseling, nor attaining normalizations of daily glycemic levels at day 3, day 7, or overall, influenced the ultimate incidence of clinical failures. Thus, the rapidity or success of achieving normoglycemia do not appear to influence the risk of treatment failure for operated DFI episodes. Keywords: Diabetic foot infections; Glycemia; Insulin therapy; Outcomes; Surger

    Adequacy of Diabetes Care for Older U.S. Rural Adults: A Cross-sectional Population Based Study Using 2009 BRFSS Data

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    Background: In the U.S. diabetes prevalence estimates for adults ≥ 65 years exceed 20%. Rural communities have higher proportions of older individuals and health disparities associated with rural residency place rural communities at risk for a higher burden from diabetes. This study examined the adequacy of care received by older rural adults for their diabetes to determine if older rural adults differed in the receipt of adequate diabetes care when compared to their non-rural counterparts. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were examined using bivariate and multivariate analytical techniques. Results: Logistic regression analysis revealed that older rural adults with diabetes were more likely to receive less than adequate care when compared to their non-rural counterparts (OR = 1.465, 95% CI: 1.454-1.475). Older rural adults receiving less than adequate care for their diabetes were more likely to be: male, non-Caucasian, less educated, unmarried, economically poorer, inactive, a smoker. They were also more likely to: have deferred medical care because of cost, not have a personal health care provider, and not have had a routine medical check-up within the last 12 months. Conclusion: There are gaps between what is recommended for diabetes management and the management that older individuals receive. Older adults with diabetes living in rural communities are at greater risk for less than adequate care when compared to their non-rural counterparts. These results suggest the need to develop strategies to improve diabetes care for older adults with diabetes and to target those at highest risk

    The influence of psychiatric screening in healthy populations selection: a new study and meta-analysis of functional 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms and anxiety-related personality traits

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A genetic liability for anxiety-related personality traits in healthy subjects has been associated with the functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), although the data are somewhat conflicting. Moreover, only one study has investigated the functional significance of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 haplotypes in relation to anxiety traits in healthy subjects. We tested whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 haplotypes are linked to Harm Avoidance (HA) using an association study (STUDY I) and a meta-analytic approach (STUDY II).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>STUDY I: A total of 287 unrelated Italian volunteers were screened for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 (A/G) polymorphisms. Different functional haplotype combinations were also analyzed. STUDY II: A total of 44 studies were chosen for a meta-analysis of the putative association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related personality traits.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>STUDY I: In the whole sample of 287 volunteers, we found that the SS genotype and S'S' haplotypes were associated with higher scores on HA. However, because the screening assessed by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) showed the presence of 55 volunteers affected by depression or anxiety disorders, we analyzed the two groups ("disordered" and "healthy") separately. The data obtained did indeed confirm that in the "healthy" group, the significant effects of the SS genotype and S'S' haplotypes were lost, but they remained in the "disordered" group. STUDY II: The results of the 5-HTTLPR meta-analysis with anxiety-related traits in the whole sample confirmed the association of the SS genotype with higher anxiety-related traits scores in Caucasoids; however, when we analyzed only those studies that used structured psychiatric screening, no association was found.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study demonstrates the relevance to perform analyses on personality traits only in DSM-IV axis I disorder-free subjects. Furthermore, we did not find an association between functional serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and anxiety traits in healthy subjects screened through a structured psychiatric interview.</p
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