3,939 research outputs found

    Conformal Invariance and Shape-Dependent Conductance of Graphene Samples

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    For a sample of an arbitrary shape, the dependence of its conductance on the longitudinal and Hall conductivity is identical to that of a rectangle. We use analytic results for a conducting rectangle, combined with the semicircle model for transport coefficients, to study properties of the monolayer and bilayer graphene. A conductance plateau centered at the neutrality point, predicted for square geometry, is in agreement with recent experiments. For rectangular geometry, the conductance exhibits maxima at the densities of compressible quantum Hall states for wide samples, and minima for narrow samples. The positions and relative sizes of these features are different in the monolayer and bilayer cases, indicating that the conductance can be used as a tool for sample diagnostic.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Are Antipyretic Medications Compatible with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines?

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    What About Anosmia From COVID-19 ?

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    A microscopic view on contact angle selection

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    We discuss the equilibrium condition for a liquid that partially wets a solid on the level of intermolecular forces. Using a mean field continuum description, we generalize the capillary pressure from variation of the free energy and show at what length scale the equilibrium contact angle is selected. After recovering Young's law for homogeneous substrates, it is shown how hysteresis of the contact angle can be incorporated in a self-consistent fashion. In all cases the liquid-vapor interface takes a nontrivial shape, which is compared to models using a disjoining pressure.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figure

    Gray and white matter astrocytes differ in basal metabolism but respond similarly to neuronal activity

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    Astrocytes are a heterogeneous population of glial cells in the brain, which adapt their properties to the requirements of the local environment. Two major groups of astrocytes are protoplasmic astrocytes residing in gray matter as well as fibrous astrocytes of white matter. Here, we compared the energy metabolism of astrocytes in the cortex and corpus callosum as representative gray matter and white matter regions, in acute brain slices taking advantage of genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensors for the NADH/NAD+ redox ratio and for ATP. Astrocytes of the corpus callosum presented a more reduced basal NADH/NAD+ redox ratio, and a lower cytosolic concentration of ATP compared to cortical astrocytes. In cortical astrocytes, the neurotransmitter glutamate and increased extracellular concentrations of K+, typical correlates of neuronal activity, induced a more reduced NADH/NAD+ redox ratio. While application of glutamate decreased [ATP], K+ as well as the combination of glutamate and K+ resulted in an increase of ATP levels. Strikingly, a very similar regulation of metabolism by K+ and glutamate was observed in astrocytes in the corpus callosum. Finally, strong intrinsic neuronal activity provoked by application of bicuculline and withdrawal of Mg2+ caused a shift of the NADH/NAD+ redox ratio to a more reduced state as well as a slight reduction of [ATP] in gray and white matter astrocytes. In summary, the metabolism of astrocytes in cortex and corpus callosum shows distinct basal properties, but qualitatively similar responses to neuronal activity, probably reflecting the different environment and requirements of these brain regions

    Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry

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    Spectrometry is a general physical-analysis approach for investigating light-matter interactions. However, the complex designs of existing spectrometers render them resistant to simplification and miniaturization, both of which are vital for applications in micro- and nanotechnology and which are now undergoing intensive research. Stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry (SWIFTS)-an approach based on direct intensity detection of a standing wave resulting from either reflection (as in the principle of colour photography by Gabriel Lippmann) or counterpropagative interference phenomenon-is expected to be able to overcome this drawback. Here, we present a SWIFTS-based spectrometer relying on an original optical near-field detection method in which optical nanoprobes are used to sample directly the evanescent standing wave in the waveguide. Combined with integrated optics, we report a way of reducing the volume of the spectrometer to a few hundreds of cubic wavelengths. This is the first attempt, using SWIFTS, to produce a very small integrated one-dimensional spectrometer suitable for applications where microspectrometers are essential

    Fire analysis of steel frames with the use of artificial neural networks

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    The paper presents an alternative approach to the modelling of the mechanical behaviour of steel frame material when exposed to the high temperatures expected in fires. Based on a series of stress-strain curves obtained experimentally for various temperature levels, an artificial neural network (ANN) is employed in the material modelling of steel. Geometrically and materially, a non-linear analysis of plane frame structures subjected to fire is performed by FEM. The numerical results of a simply supported beam are compared with our measurements, and show a good agreement, although the temperature-displacement curves exhibit rather irregular shapes. It can be concluded that ANN is an efficient tool for modelling the material properties of steel frames in fire engineering design studies. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
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