4,728 research outputs found

    Selectivity of DNA polymerases toward α and β nucleotide substrates of d and l series

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    AbstractThe substrate properties of four carbocyclic d and l nucleoside 5′-triphosphate analogs toward HIV and AMV reverse transcriptases and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase were evaluated. The compounds of the d-β and l-β series were found to be terminating substrates for these enzymes, while the derivatives of the d-α and l-α series were recognized only by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, suggesting that for the template-independent enzyme the mutual orientation of the two fragments is of no significance. A hypothesis for binding of nucleotides to the DNA polymerase active center was proposed

    Structure based inhibitor design targeting glycogen phosphorylase b. Virtual screening, synthesis, biochemical and biological assessment of novel N-acyl-β-d-glucopyranosylamines

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    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated target for the development of new type 2 diabetes treatments. Exploiting the Zinc docking database, we report the in silico screening of 1888 β- D-glucopyranose-NH-CO-R putative GP inhibitors differing only in their R groups. CombiGlide and GOLD docking programs with different scoring functions were employed with the best performing methods combined in a “consensus scoring” approach to ranking of ligand binding affinities for the active site. Six selected candidates from the screening were then synthesized and their inhibitory potency was assessed both in vitro and ex vivo. Their inhibition constants’ values, in vitro, ranged from 5 to 377 µM while two of them were effective at causing inactivation of GP in rat hepatocytes at low µM concentrations. The crystal structures of GP in complex with the inhibitors were defined and provided the structural basis for their inhibitory potency and data for further structure based design of more potent inhibitors

    SuperPred: drug classification and target prediction

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    The drug classification scheme of the World Health Organization (WHO) [Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)-code] connects chemical classification and therapeutic approach. It is generally accepted that compounds with similar physicochemical properties exhibit similar biological activity. If this hypothesis holds true for drugs, then the ATC-code, the putative medical indication area and potentially the medical target should be predictable on the basis of structural similarity. We have validated that the prediction of the drug class is reliable for WHO-classified drugs. The reliability of the predicted medical effects of the compounds increases with a rising number of (physico-) chemical properties similar to a drug with known function. The web-server translates a user-defined molecule into a structural fingerprint that is compared to about 6300 drugs, which are enriched by 7300 links to molecular targets of the drugs, derived through text mining followed by manual curation. Links to the affected pathways are provided. The similarity to the medical compounds is expressed by the Tanimoto coefficient that gives the structural similarity of two compounds. A similarity score higher than 0.85 results in correct ATC prediction for 81% of all cases. As the biological effect is well predictable, if the structural similarity is sufficient, the web-server allows prognoses about the medical indication area of novel compounds and to find new leads for known targets

    Extensive Copy-Number Variation of Young Genes across Stickleback Populations

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    MM received funding from the Max Planck innovation funds for this project. PGDF was supported by a Marie Curie European Reintegration Grant (proposal nr 270891). CE was supported by German Science Foundation grants (DFG, EI 841/4-1 and EI 841/6-1). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    Linguistic measures of chemical diversity and the "keywords" of molecular collections

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    Computerized linguistic analyses have proven of immense value in comparing and searching through large text collections ("corpora"), including those deposited on the Internet-indeed, it would nowadays be hard to imagine browsing the Web without, for instance, search algorithms extracting most appropriate keywords from documents. This paper describes how such corpus-linguistic concepts can be extended to chemistry based on characteristic "chemical words" that span more than traditional functional groups and, instead, look at common structural fragments molecules share. Using these words, it is possible to quantify the diversity of chemical collections/databases in new ways and to define molecular "keywords" by which such collections are best characterized and annotated

    Characteristics of Urban Freight Systems

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    This report has been developed to support the transportation planning needs for urban goods movement and freight planning as promoted by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Characteristics of Urban Freight Systems (CUFS) has been designed to be a compilation of current data that pertain to urban freight movements. Sections I-IX deal with urban truck movement and truck terminals while Sections X-XII are concerned with the intermodal aspects of freight movements - rail intermodal yards, airports and air cargo facilities, and ocean and inland waterway ports. The data were assembled from many different sources and are expected to be of assistance to Metropolitan Planning Organization planners who deal with urban freight issues. Much of the intermodal discussions also focus on truck movements as the primary mode of access to/from intermodal facilities. The information is drawn from U.S. and Canadian experience but is community specific as it is not yet possible to develop generalized relationships. As more data become available from current data collection efforts, it should become possible to develop generalized values that can be transferred to different planning environment. An attempt has been made to include data sources developed since the mid-1980s. Information has been included from some studies dating to the 1970s where more current data were not available. All data were obtained from survey studies and were not synthesized from analytical modeling efforts. All data sources have been identified to assist the planner in assessing their usefulness. Most of the information has been collected from published reports, but some data, particularly in the intermodal freight area, came from internal memos, personal observations, and interviews. It is hoped that Characteristics of Urban Freight Systems (CUFS) will become a starting point for the collection and integration of urban freight data for local planners

    Hadron Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering

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    Characteristics of hadron production in diffractive deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering are studied using data collected in 1994 by the H1 experiment at HERA. The following distributions are measured in the centre-of-mass frame of the photon dissociation system: the hadronic energy flow, the Feynman-x (x_F) variable for charged particles, the squared transverse momentum of charged particles (p_T^{*2}), and the mean p_T^{*2} as a function of x_F. These distributions are compared with results in the gamma^* p centre-of-mass frame from inclusive deep-inelastic scattering in the fixed-target experiment EMC, and also with the predictions of several Monte Carlo calculations. The data are consistent with a picture in which the partonic structure of the diffractive exchange is dominated at low Q^2 by hard gluons.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, submitted to Phys. Lett.

    Low Q^2 Jet Production at HERA and Virtual Photon Structure

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    The transition between photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering is investigated in jet production at the HERA ep collider, using data collected by the H1 experiment. Measurements of the differential inclusive jet cross-sections dsigep/dEt* and dsigmep/deta*, where Et* and eta* are the transverse energy and the pseudorapidity of the jets in the virtual photon-proton centre of mass frame, are presented for 0 < Q2 < 49 GeV2 and 0.3 < y < 0.6. The interpretation of the results in terms of the structure of the virtual photon is discussed. The data are best described by QCD calculations which include a partonic structure of the virtual photon that evolves with Q2.Comment: 20 pages, 5 Figure

    Using molecular simulation to predict solute solvation and partition coefficients in solvents of different polarity

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    A methodology is proposed for the prediction of the Gibbs energy of solvation (Delta(Solv)G) based on MD simulations. The methodology is then used to predict DSolvG of four solutes (namely propane, benzene, ethanol and acetone) in several solvents of different polarities (including n-hexane, n-hexadecane, ethylbenzene, 1-octanol, acetone and water) while testing the validity of the TraPPE force field parameters. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained, with average deviations of 0.2, 1.1, 0.8 and 1.2 kJ mol(-1), for the four solutes respectively. Subsequently, partition coefficients (log P) for forty different solute/solvent systems are predicted. The a priori knowledge of partition coefficient values is of high importance in chemical and pharmaceutical separation process design or as a measure of the increasingly important environmental fate. Here again, the agreement between experimental data and simulation predictions is excellent, with an absolute average deviation of 0.28 log P units. However, this deviation can be decreased down to 0.14 log P units, just by optimizing partial atomic charges of acetone in the water phase. Consequently, molecular simulation is proven to be a tool with strong physical basis able to predict log P with competitive accuracy when compared to the popular statistical methods with weak physical basis
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