1,169 research outputs found

    Poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) in colorectal cancer: Does their localization in tumor matter?

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    Poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) are aggregates of at least five neoplastic cells lacking evidence of glandular differentiation. By definition, they can be present at the invasive front (peripheral PDC or pPDC) and within the tumor stroma (central PDC or cPDC). In colorectal cancer (CRC), PDC are considered adverse prognosticators and seem to reflect epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we have investigated the immuno-expression of two EMT-related proteins, E-cadherin and ÎČ-catenin, in PDC of primary CRCs and matched liver metastases. pPDC always showed nuclear ÎČ-catenin staining and diffusely reduced/absence of E-cadherin expression as opposed cPDC which showed nuclear ÎČ-catenin immunoreactivity and E-cadherin expression in about 50% of cases. In addition, the pattern of ÎČ-catenin and E-cadherin expression differed between PDC and the main tumor, and between primary CRC and liver metastasis (LM), in a percentage of cases. A discordant pattern of ÎČ-catenin and E-cadherin expression between pPDC and cPDC, between main tumor and cPDC, and between primary CRC and LM, confirms that EMT is a dynamic and reversible process in CRC. On the overall, this suggests that pPDC and cPDC are biologically different. We may advocate that PDC develop at the tumor center (cPDC) and then some of them migrate towards the tumor periphery while progressively completing EMT process (pPDC). Based on these results, PDC presence and counting may have different prognostic relevance if the assessment is done at the invasive front of the tumor or in the intratumor stroma

    Nonexponential Relaxation of Magnetization at the Resonant Tunneling Point under a Fluctuating Random Noise

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    Nonexponential relaxation of magnetization at resonant tunneling points of nanoscale molecular magnets is interpreted to be an effect of fluctuating random field around the applied field. We demonstrate such relaxation in Langevin equation analysis and clarify how the initial relaxation (square-root time) changes to the exponential decay. The scaling properties of the relaxation are also discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 4 fgiure

    Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in Mn12 Acetate: The Absence of Inhomogeneous Hyperfine Broadening

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    We present the results of a detailed study of the thermally-assisted-resonant-tunneling relaxation rate of Mn12 acetate as a function of an external, longitudinal magnetic field and find that the data can be fit extremely well to a Lorentzian function. No hint of inhomogeneous broadening is found, even though some is expected from the Mn nuclear hyperfine interaction. This inconsistency implies that the tunneling mechanism cannot be described simply in terms of a random hyperfine field.Comment: Some minor revisions, title changed, updated figures, two added notes, one added reference. RevTeX, 4 pages, 3 postscript figures. Submitted to Rapid Communication

    Quantum nucleation in ferromagnets with tetragonal and hexagonal symmetries

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    The phenomenon of quantum nucleation is studied in a ferromagnet in the presence of a magnetic field at an arbitrary angle. We consider the magnetocrystalline anisotropy with tetragonal symmetry and that with hexagonal symmetry, respectively. By applying the instanton method in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, we calculate the dependence of the rate of quantum nucleation and the crossover temperature on the orientation and strength of the field for a thin film and for a bulk solid. Our results show that the rate of quantum nucleation and the crossover temperature depend on the orientation of the external magnetic field distinctly, which provides a possible experimental test for quantum nucleation in nanometer-scale ferromagnets.Comment: 19 pages and 3 figures, Final version and accepted by Phys. Rev. B (Feb. B1 2001

    Thermally Activated Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in Molecular Magnets: Mn_12Ac and others

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    The dynamical theory of thermally activated resonant magnetization tunneling in uniaxially anisotropic magnetic molecules such as Mn_12Ac (S=10) is developed.The observed slow dynamics of the system is described by master equations for the populations of spin levels.The latter are obtained by the adiabatic elimination of fast degrees of freedom from the density matrix equation with the help of the perturbation theory developed earlier for the tunneling level splitting [D. A. Garanin, J. Phys. A, 24, L61 (1991)]. There exists a temperature range (thermally activated tunneling) where the escape rate follows the Arrhenius law, but has a nonmonotonic dependence on the bias field due to tunneling at the top of the barrier. At lower temperatures this regime crosses over to the non-Arrhenius law (thermally assisted tunneling). The transition between the two regimes can be first or second order, depending on the transverse field, which can be tested in experiments. In both regimes the resonant maxima of the rate occur when spin levels in the two potential wells match at certain field values. In the thermally activated regime at low dissipation each resonance has a multitower self-similar structure with progressively narrowing peaks mounting on top of each other.Comment: 18 pages, 8 figure

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector