881 research outputs found

    External stimulus-responsive biomaterials designed for the culture and differentiation of ES, iPS, and adult stem cells

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    The physical and chemical characteristics of biomaterial surface and hydrogels can be altered by external stimuli, such as light irradiation, temperature changes, pH shifts, shear stress forces, electrical forces, and the addition of small chemical molecules. Such external stimulus-responsive biomaterials represent promising candidates that have been developed for the culture and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and adult stem cells. Biomaterials that are designed to respond in a reversible manner to specific external signals can be formed on micropatterned or non-micropatterned surface, in hydrogels, or on microcarriers. Stem cells and the cells differentiated from them into specific tissue lineages can be cultured and/or differentiated on dishes with immobilized external stimulus-responsive polymers. Cells can be detached from these dishes without using an enzymatic digestion method or a mechanical method when the appropriate external stimulus is generated on the surface. This review discusses the polymers and polymeric designs employed to produce surface and hydrogels for stem cell culture, differentiation, and/or cell detachment using various external stimuli

    Use and effectiveness of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicenter retrospective study in Taiwan

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    Aims/Introduction To investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who initiated dapagliflozin in real-world practice in Taiwan. Materials and Methods In this multicenter retrospective study, adult patients with T2DM who initiated dapagliflozin after May 1st 2016 either as add-on or switch therapy were included. Changes in clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated at 3 and 6 months. Baseline factors associated with dapagliflozin response in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 1,960 patients were eligible. At 6 months, significant changes were observed: HbA1c by ‚ąí0.73% (95% confidence interval [CI] ‚ąí0.80, ‚ąí0.67), body weight was -1.61 kg (95% CI ‚ąí1.79, ‚ąí1.42), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure by ‚ąí3.6/‚ąí1.4 mmHg. Add-on dapagliflozin showed significantly greater HbA1c reduction (‚ąí0.82%) than switched therapy (‚ąí0.66%) (p¬†=¬†0.002). The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% target increased from 6% at baseline to 19% at Month 6. Almost 80% of patients experienced at least 1% reduction in HbA1c, and 65% of patients showed both weight loss and reduction in HbA1c. Around 37% of patients had at least 3% weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated patients with higher baseline HbA1c and those who initiated dapagliflozin as add-on therapy were associated with a greater reduction in HbA1c. Conclusions In this real-world study with the highest patient number of Chinese population to date, the use of dapagliflozin was associated with significant improvement in glycemic control, body weight, and blood pressure in patients with T2DM. Initiating dapagliflozin as add-on therapy showed better glycemic control than as switch therapy

    Peritoneal VEGF-A expression is regulated by TGF-ő≤1 through an ID1 pathway in women with endometriosis

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    VEGF-A, an angiogenic factor, is increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. The cytokine TGF-ő≤1 is thought to play a role in the establishment of endometriosis lesions. Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are transcriptional targets of TGF-ő≤1 and ID1 has been implicated in VEGF-A regulation during tumor angiogenesis. Herein, we determined whether peritoneal expression of VEGF-A is regulated by TGF-ő≤1 through the ID1 pathway in women with endometriosis. VEGF-A was measured in peritoneal fluid by ELISA (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ16). VEGF-A and ID1 expression was examined in peritoneal biopsies (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ13), and primary peritoneal and immortalized mesothelial cells (MeT5A) by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and ELISA. VEGF-A was increased in peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis and levels correlated with TGF-ő≤1 concentrations (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05). VEGF-A was immunolocalized to peritoneal mesothelium and TGF-ő≤1 increased VEGFA mRNA (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05) and protein (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05) in mesothelial cells. ID1 was increased in peritoneum from women with endometriosis and TGF-ő≤1 increased concentrations of ID1 mRNA (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05) in mesothelial cells. VEGF-A regulation through ID1 was confirmed by siRNA in MeT5A cells (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05). Our data supports role for ID1 in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, as an effector of TGFő≤1 dependent upregulation of VEGF-A, and highlights a novel potential therapeutic target

    Efficiency of Finding Muon Track Trigger Primitives in CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

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    In the CMS Experiment, muon detection in the forward direction is accomplished by cathode strip chambers~(CSC). These detectors identify muons, provide a fast muon trigger, and give a precise measurement of the muon trajectory. There are 468 six-plane CSCs in the system. The efficiency of finding muon trigger primitives (muon track segments) was studied using~36 CMS CSCs and cosmic ray muons during the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge~(MTCC) exercise conducted by the~CMS experiment in~2006. In contrast to earlier studies that used muon beams to illuminate a very small chamber area (<‚ÄČ‚Ā£0.01< \! 0.01~m2^2), results presented in this paper were obtained by many installed CSCs operating {\em in situ} over an area of ‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£23\approx \! 23~m2^2 as a part of the~CMS experiment. The efficiency of finding 2-dimensional trigger primitives within 6-layer chambers was found to be~99.93¬Ī0.03%99.93 \pm 0.03\%. These segments, found by the CSC electronics within 800800~ns after the passing of a muon through the chambers, are the input information for the Level-1 muon trigger and, also, are a necessary condition for chambers to be read out by the Data Acquisition System

    The self-organizing fractal theory as a universal discovery method: the phenomenon of life

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    A universal discovery method potentially applicable to all disciplines studying organizational phenomena has been developed. This method takes advantage of a new form of global symmetry, namely, scale-invariance of self-organizational dynamics of energy/matter at all levels of organizational hierarchy, from elementary particles through cells and organisms to the Universe as a whole. The method is based on an alternative conceptualization of physical reality postulating that the energy/matter comprising the Universe is far from equilibrium, that it exists as a flow, and that it develops via self-organization in accordance with the empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. It is postulated that the energy/matter flowing through and comprising the Universe evolves as a multiscale, self-similar structure-process, i.e., as a self-organizing fractal. This means that certain organizational structures and processes are scale-invariant and are reproduced at all levels of the organizational hierarchy. Being a form of symmetry, scale-invariance naturally lends itself to a new discovery method that allows for the deduction of missing information by comparing scale-invariant organizational patterns across different levels of the organizational hierarchy

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation