87 research outputs found

    Interobserver reproducibility of perineural invasion of prostatic adenocarcinoma in needle biopsies

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    Numerous studies have shown a correlation between perineural invasion (PNI) in prostate biopsies and outcome. The reporting of PNI varies widely in the literature. While the interobserver variability of prostate cancer grading has been studied extensively, less is known regarding the reproducibility of PNI. A total of 212 biopsy cores from a population-based screening trial were included in this study (106 with and 106 without PNI according to the original pathology reports). The glass slides were scanned and circulated among four pathologists with a special interest in urological pathology for assessment of PNI. Discordant cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for S-100 protein. PNI was diagnosed by all four observers in 34.0% of cases, while 41.5% were considered to be negative for PNI. In 24.5% of cases, there was a disagreement between the observers. The kappa for interobserver variability was 0.67-0.75 (mean 0.73). The observations from one participant were compared with data from the original reports, and a kappa for intraobserver variability of 0.87 was achieved. Based on immunohistochemical findings among discordant cases, 88.6% had PNI while 11.4% did not. The most common diagnostic pitfall was the presence of bundles of stroma or smooth muscle. It was noted in a few cases that collagenous micronodules could be mistaken for a nerve. The distance between cancer and nerve was another cause of disagreement. Although the results suggest that the reproducibility of PNI may be greater than that of prostate cancer grading, there is still a need for improvement and standardization

    Proteogenomic analysis of acute myeloid leukemia associates relapsed disease with reprogrammed energy metabolism both in adults and children

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    Despite improvement of current treatment strategies and novel targeted drugs, relapse and treatment resistance largely determine the outcome for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. To identify the underlying molecular characteristics, numerous studies have been aimed to decipher the genomic- and transcriptomic landscape of AML. Nevertheless, further molecular changes allowing malignant cells to escape treatment remain to be elucidated. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool enabling detailed insights into proteomic changes that could explain AML relapse and resistance. Here, we investigated AML samples from 47 adult and 22 pediatric patients at serial time-points during disease progression using mass spectrometry-based in-depth proteomics. We show that the proteomic profile at relapse is enriched for mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and subunits of the respiratory chain complex, indicative of reprogrammed energy metabolism from diagnosis to relapse. Further, higher levels of granzymes and lower levels of the anti-inflammatory protein CR1/CD35 suggest an inflammatory signature promoting disease progression. Finally, through a proteogenomic approach, we detected novel peptides, which present a promising repertoire in the search for biomarkers and tumor-specific druggable targets. Altogether, this study highlights the importance of proteomic studies in holistic approaches to improve treatment and survival of AML patients.Peer reviewe

    Fixation and Spread of Somatic Mutations in Adult Human Colonic Epithelium.

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    We investigated the means and timing by which mutations become fixed in the human colonic epithelium by visualizing somatic clones and mathematical inference. Fixation requires two sequential steps. First, one of approximately seven active stem cells residing within each colonic crypt has to be mutated. Second, the mutated stem cell has to replace neighbors to populate the entire crypt in a process that takes several years. Subsequent clonal expansion due to crypt fission is infrequent for neutral mutations (around 0.7% of all crypts undergo fission in a single year). Pro-oncogenic mutations subvert both stem cell replacement to accelerate fixation and clonal expansion by crypt fission to achieve high mutant allele frequencies with age. The benchmarking of these behaviors allows the advantage associated with different gene-specific mutations to be compared irrespective of the cellular mechanisms by which they are conferred

    The Dynamic Transcriptional Cell Atlas of Testis Development during Human Puberty

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    The human testis undergoes dramatic developmental and structural changes during puberty, including proliferation and maturation of somatic niche cells, and the onset of spermatogenesis. To characterize this understudied process, we profiled and analyzed single-cell transcriptomes of similar to 10,000 testicular cells from four boys spanning puberty and compared them to those of infants and adults. During puberty, undifferentiated spermatogonia sequentially expand and differentiate prior to the initiation of gametogenesis. Notably, we identify a common pre-pubertal progenitor for Leydig and myoid cells and delineate candidate factors controlling pubertal differentiation. Furthermore, pre-pubertal Sertoli cells exhibit two distinct transcriptional states differing in metabolic profiles before converging to an alternative single mature population during puberty. Roles for testosterone in Sertoli cell maturation, antimicrobial peptide secretion, and spermatogonial differentiation are further highlighted through single-cell analysis of testosterone-suppressed transfemale testes. Taken together, our transcriptional atlas of the developing human testis provides multiple insights into developmental changes and key factors accompanying male puberty

    Estimating diagnostic uncertainty in artificial intelligence assisted pathology using conformal prediction

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    Unreliable predictions can occur when an artificial intelligence (AI) system is presented with data it has not been exposed to during training. We demonstrate the use of conformal prediction to detect unreliable predictions, using histopathological diagnosis and grading of prostate biopsies as example. We digitized 7788 prostate biopsies from 1192 men in the STHLM3 diagnostic study, used for training, and 3059 biopsies from 676 men used for testing. With conformal prediction, 1 in 794 (0.1%) predictions is incorrect for cancer diagnosis (compared to 14 errors [2%] without conformal prediction) while 175 (22%) of the predictions are flagged as unreliable when the AI-system is presented with new data from the same lab and scanner that it was trained on. Conformal prediction could with small samples (N = 49 for external scanner, N = 10 for external lab and scanner, and N = 12 for external lab, scanner and pathology assessment) detect systematic differences in external data leading to worse predictive performance. The AI-system with conformal prediction commits 3 (2%) errors for cancer detection in cases of atypical prostate tissue compared to 44 (25%) without conformal prediction, while the system flags 143 (80%) unreliable predictions. We conclude that conformal prediction can increase patient safety of AI-systems.publishedVersionPeer reviewe

    The human secretome

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    The proteins secreted by human cells (collectively referred to as the secretome) are important not only for the basic understanding of human biology but also for the identification of potential targets for future diagnostics and therapies. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of proteins predicted to be secreted in human cells, which provides information about their final localization in the human body, including the proteins actively secreted to peripheral blood. The analysis suggests that a large number of the proteins of the secretome are not secreted out of the cell, but instead are retained intracellularly, whereas another large group of proteins were identified that are predicted to be retained locally at the tissue of expression and not secreted into the blood. Proteins detected in the human blood by mass spectrometry-based proteomics and antibody-based immuno-assays are also presented with estimates of their concentrations in the blood. The results are presented in an updated version 19 of the Human Protein Atlas in which each gene encoding a secretome protein is annotated to provide an open-access knowledge resource of the human secretome, including body-wide expression data, spatial localization data down to the single-cell and subcellular levels, and data about the presence of proteins that are detectable in the blood

    A narrative analysis of principals’experiences regarding the principals assignment

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    The principal's assignment is a complex one, situated in a tense field between the profession and politics. Because of this multidimensional assignment, with varying tasks and contradictory expectations, a willingness to examine how principals choose to tell about their duties emerged.The purpose of this narrative study was to examine what experiences of different events have challenged principals, the support they received and/or what support they would have wanted in thesesituations. Based on the purpose of the study the following research questions were formed: -What does the principals’ choose to disclose about their duties as principals?-Which challenging events in the role as principal does the principals’ chooseto disclose?-What kind of support did the principals receive during the challenging events and what kind of support would they have wanted to receive?In this qualitative study the data is gathered through five semi-structured interviewswith active principals. By taking a narrative approach principals’ life-stories are created through the disclosed events, which in turn emanates from the research questions. The principal’s statements are analyzed by applying a social constructivist perspective where learning, knowing and acting are central elements. The principals’ life-stories testifies a number of emotions, such as vulnerability, loneliness, inadequacy, lack of understanding and lack of trust. In the conversations and reflections that arose during data collection, a lot ended up the principals themselves, what they could have done differently and why it turned out the way it did. The multidimensional assignment also emerged in the principals’ stories, such as difficulties in prioritizing tasks, that much of the time is spent on things not part of the core assignment as well as various tasks concerning matters outside their expertise.The study shows the importance of understanding how political and cultural contexts support, limit and are shaped by the personal elements that exist in identity creation. Bringing together different perspectives such as individual, group and organization to promote new knowledge and be able to adapt the knowledge to its culturaland social context is essential for school organizers to be able to create support structures based on principals’ needs