2,863 research outputs found

    Jet Physics at the Tevatron

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    Jets have been used to verify the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), measure the structure of the proton and to search for the physics beyond the Standard Model. In this article, we review the current status of jet physics at the Tevatron, a sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV p-pbar collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We report on recent measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section and the results of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model using jets. Dijet production measurements are also reported.Comment: 29 pages, 12 figures, submitted to Ann.Rev.Nucl.Part.Sc

    Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Abortion Rates Among Black Women in the United States

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    Abortion has been a public health issue since the procedure became legal 47 years ago and, clinicians have performed 60,069,971 abortions from 1973 to 2017 in the United States. In 2014, a significant decline in abortion rates has been recorded in almost every state, as well as across different subpopulations when segregated by age, race/ethnicity, education, income, or geographic locations. However, abortion rates were still significantly higher among Black women relative to the U.S. average, prompting the need to examine the causes of this disparity. The main purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate and determine the sociodemographic causing factors of the relatively high rates of abortions among Black women recorded in 2014 in the United States. This study was grounded on the decision theory (the theory of choice), put forth in 1670 by Blaise, which encompasses the reasoning that underlies an individual’s choice. Secondary data from the abortion rates of 15 to 19-year-old Black women in 2014 were collected for this quantitative study from the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) database. I then condensed the number of abortions in every 1,000 women to every 100 women, which resulted in a sample size of 3,200 Black women, who have had at least 1 abortion in 2014. The data analytic procedures included a frequency analysis, a cross-tabulation, a Chi-square test, an independent samples t-test, and a simple Logistic regression to determine the causing factors of abortion among black women in the United States. The results showed that abortion rates were high in high school women, single women, urban residing women, and nonreligious women. The findings of this research study can create awareness, so I recommend it to public health leaders who can now educate young women in our communities about abortion long before they become pregnant; hence, abortion rates can decrease which can result in economic growth, socio-economic development, promotion of public health, and positive social chang

    Rural men and mental health: their experiences and how they managed

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    There is a growing awareness that a primary source of information about mental health lies with the consumers. This article reports on a study that interviewed rural men with the aim of exploring their mental health experiences within a rural environment. The results of the interviews are a number of stories of resilience and survival that highlight not only the importance of exploring the individuals' perspective of their issues, but also of acknowledging and drawing on their inner strengths. Rural men face a number of challenges that not only increase the risk of mental illness but also decrease the likelihood of them seeking and/or finding professional support. These men's stories, while different from each other, have a common thread of coping. Despite some support from family and friends participants also acknowledged that seeking out professional support could have made the recovery phase easier. Mental health nurses need to be aware, not only of the barrier to professional support but also of the significant resilience that individuals have and how it can be utilised

    Developing integrated guidelines for health care workers in hospital and primary healthcare facilities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs)

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    COVID-19 has placed an enormous burden on health systems globally. In response to the demands of the pandemic, there has been an urgent need to capacity build healthcare workers (HCWs) to reduce nosocomial transmission, strengthen triage systems, and rapidly identify cases to break chains of transmission in the community. The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced technical guidance documents for patient management, risk communication, infection control, etc. However, the guidance does not address health system challenges or implementation difficulties in resource-constrained settings such as LMICs. Further, while guidance provides valuable information for HCWs it must be complemented with training to ensure protocolization and uptake into practice. This is particularly important in the context of COVID-19, which has been hallmarked by waves of infections, resource scarcity, and growing stigma

    Systems-level analysis of age-related macular degeneration reveals global biomarkers and phenotype-specific functional networks

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    Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness that affects the central region of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), choroid, and neural retina. Initially characterized by an accumulation of sub-RPE deposits, AMD leads to progressive retinal degeneration, and in advanced cases, irreversible vision loss. Although genetic analysis, animal models, and cell culture systems have yielded important insights into AMD, the molecular pathways underlying AMD's onset and progression remain poorly delineated. We sought to better understand the molecular underpinnings of this devastating disease by performing the first comparative transcriptome analysis of AMD and normal human donor eyes. Methods RPE-choroid and retina tissue samples were obtained from a common cohort of 31 normal, 26 AMD, and 11 potential pre-AMD human donor eyes. Transcriptome profiles were generated for macular and extramacular regions, and statistical and bioinformatic methods were employed to identify disease-associated gene signatures and functionally enriched protein association networks. Selected genes of high significance were validated using an independent donor cohort. Results We identified over 50 annotated genes enriched in cell-mediated immune responses that are globally over-expressed in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes. Using a machine learning model and a second donor cohort, we show that the top 20 global genes are predictive of AMD clinical diagnosis. We also discovered functionally enriched gene sets in the RPE-choroid that delineate the advanced AMD phenotypes, neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy. Moreover, we identified a graded increase of transcript levels in the retina related to wound response, complement cascade, and neurogenesis that strongly correlates with decreased levels of phototransduction transcripts and increased AMD severity. Based on our findings, we assembled protein-protein interactomes that highlight functional networks likely to be involved in AMD pathogenesis. Conclusions We discovered new global biomarkers and gene expression signatures of AMD. These results are consistent with a model whereby cell-based inflammatory responses represent a central feature of AMD etiology, and depending on genetics, environment, or stochastic factors, may give rise to the advanced AMD phenotypes characterized by angiogenesis and/or cell death. Genes regulating these immunological activities, along with numerous other genes identified here, represent promising new targets for AMD-directed therapeutics and diagnostics. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/21/abstrac

    The state of the Martian climate

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    60°N was +2.0°C, relative to the 1981–2010 average value (Fig. 5.1). This marks a new high for the record. The average annual surface air temperature (SAT) anomaly for 2016 for land stations north of starting in 1900, and is a significant increase over the previous highest value of +1.2°C, which was observed in 2007, 2011, and 2015. Average global annual temperatures also showed record values in 2015 and 2016. Currently, the Arctic is warming at more than twice the rate of lower latitudes