6,124 research outputs found

    On presuppositions in requirements

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    Roles of TRPV1 and neuropeptidergic receptors in dorsal root reflex-mediated neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Acute cutaneous neurogenic inflammation initiated by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV<sub>1</sub>) receptors following intradermal injection of capsaicin is mediated mainly by dorsal root reflexes (DRRs). Inflammatory neuropeptides are suggested to be released from primary afferent nociceptors participating in inflammation. However, no direct evidence demonstrates that the release of inflammatory substances is due to the triggering of DRRs and how activation of TRPV<sub>1 </sub>receptors initiates neurogenic inflammation via triggering DRRs.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Here we used pharmacological manipulations to analyze the roles of TRPV<sub>1 </sub>and neuropeptidergic receptors in the DRR-mediated neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin. The degree of cutaneous inflammation in the hindpaw that followed capsaicin injection was assessed by measurements of local blood flow (vasodilation) and paw-thickness (edema) of the foot skin in anesthetized rats. Local injection of capsaicin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or substance P (SP) resulted in cutaneous vasodilation and edema. Removal of DRRs by either spinal dorsal rhizotomy or intrathecal administration of the GABA<sub>A </sub>receptor antagonist, bicuculline, reduced dramatically the capsaicin-induced vasodilation and edema. In contrast, CGRP- or SP-induced inflammation was not significantly affected after DRR removal. Dose-response analysis of the antagonistic effect of the TRPV<sub>1 </sub>receptor antagonist, capsazepine administered peripherally, shows that the capsaicin-evoked inflammation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and nearly completely abolished by capsazepine at doses between 30–150 μg. In contrast, pretreatment of the periphery with different doses of CGRP<sub>8–37 </sub>(a CGRP receptor antagonist) or spantide I (a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) only reduced the inflammation. If both CGRP and NK<sub>1 </sub>receptors were blocked by co-administration of CGRP<sub>8–37 </sub>and spantide I, a stronger reduction in the capsaicin-initiated inflammation was produced.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our data suggest that 1) the generation of DRRs is critical for driving the release of neuropeptides antidromically from primary afferent nociceptors; 2) activation of TRPV<sub>1 </sub>receptors in primary afferent nociceptors following intradermal capsaicin injection initiates this process; 3) the released CGRP and SP participate in neurogenic inflammation.</p

    Spectral method for matching exterior and interior elliptic problems

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    A spectral method is described for solving coupled elliptic problems on an interior and an exterior domain. The method is formulated and tested on the two-dimensional interior Poisson and exterior Laplace problems, whose solutions and their normal derivatives are required to be continuous across the interface. A complete basis of homogeneous solutions for the interior and exterior regions, corresponding to all possible Dirichlet boundary values at the interface, are calculated in a preprocessing step. This basis is used to construct the influence matrix which serves to transform the coupled boundary conditions into conditions on the interior problem. Chebyshev approximations are used to represent both the interior solutions and the boundary values. A standard Chebyshev spectral method is used to calculate the interior solutions. The exterior harmonic solutions are calculated as the convolution of the free-space Green's function with a surface density; this surface density is itself the solution to an integral equation which has an analytic solution when the boundary values are given as a Chebyshev expansion. Properties of Chebyshev approximations insure that the basis of exterior harmonic functions represents the external near-boundary solutions uniformly. The method is tested by calculating the electrostatic potential resulting from charge distributions in a rectangle. The resulting influence matrix is well-conditioned and solutions converge exponentially as the resolution is increased. The generalization of this approach to three-dimensional problems is discussed, in particular the magnetohydrodynamic equations in a finite cylindrical domain surrounded by a vacuum

    An hydrodynamic shear instability in stratified disks

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    We discuss the possibility that astrophysical accretion disks are dynamically unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances with characteristic scales much smaller than the vertical scale height. The instability is studied using three methods: one based on the energy integral, which allows the determination of a sufficient condition of stability, one using a WKB approach, which allows the determination of the necessary and sufficient condition for instability and a last one by numerical solution. This linear instability occurs in any inviscid stably stratified differential rotating fluid for rigid, stress-free or periodic boundary conditions, provided the angular velocity Ω\Omega decreases outwards with radius rr. At not too small stratification, its growth rate is a fraction of Ω\Omega. The influence of viscous dissipation and thermal diffusivity on the instability is studied numerically, with emphasis on the case when dln⁡Ω/dln⁡r=−3/2d \ln \Omega / d \ln r =-3/2 (Keplerian case). Strong stratification and large diffusivity are found to have a stabilizing effect. The corresponding critical stratification and Reynolds number for the onset of the instability in a typical disk are derived. We propose that the spontaneous generation of these linear modes is the source of turbulence in disks, especially in weakly ionized disks.Comment: 19 pages, 13 figures, to appear in A&

    K2: A new method for the detection of galaxy clusters based on CFHTLS multicolor images

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    We have developed a new method, K2, optimized for the detection of galaxy clusters in multicolor images. Based on the Red Sequence approach, K2 detects clusters using simultaneous enhancements in both colors and position. The detection significance is robustly determined through extensive Monte-Carlo simulations and through comparison with available cluster catalogs based on two different optical methods, and also on X-ray data. K2 also provides quantitative estimates of the candidate clusters' richness and photometric redshifts. Initially K2 was applied to 161 sq deg of two color gri images of the CFHTLS-Wide data. Our simulations show that the false detection rate, at our selected threshold, is only ~1%, and that the cluster catalogs are ~80% complete up to a redshift of 0.6 for Fornax-like and richer clusters and to z ~0.3 for poorer clusters. Based on Terapix T05 release gri photometric catalogs, 35 clusters/sq deg are detected, with 1-2 Fornax-like or richer clusters every two square degrees. Catalogs containing data for 6144 galaxy clusters have been prepared, of which 239 are rich clusters. These clusters, especially the latter, are being searched for gravitational lenses -- one of our chief motivations for cluster detection in CFHTLS. The K2 method can be easily extended to use additional color information and thus improve overall cluster detection to higher redshifts. The complete set of K2 cluster catalogs, along with the supplementary catalogs for the member galaxies, are available on request from the authors.Comment: Accepted in ApJ. 25 pages, including 10 figures. Latex with emulateapj v03/07/0

    Fermion Pairing Dynamics in the Relativistic Scalar Plasma

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    Using many-body techniques we obtain the time-dependent Gaussian approximation for interacting fermion-scalar field models. This method is applied to an uniform system of relativistic spin-1/2 fermion field coupled, through a Yukawa term, to a scalar field in 3+1 dimensions, the so-called quantum scalar plasma model. The renormalization for the resulting Gaussian mean-field equations, both static and dynamical, are examined and initial conditions discussed. We also investigate solutions for the gap equation and show that the energy density has a single minimum.Comment: 21 pages, latex, 4 postscript figures, new sections, some literary changes, notation corrections, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev
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