2,645 research outputs found

    Proactive Interference Does Not Meaningfully Distort Visual Working Memory Capacity Estimates in the Canonical Change Detection Task

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    The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task – in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features – is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference

    Time-Delayed Magnetic Control and Narrowing of X-Ray frequency Spectra in Two-Target Nuclear Forward Scattering

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    Controlling and narrowing x-ray frequency spectra in magnetically perturbed two-target nuclear forward scattering is theoretically studied. We show that different hard-x-ray spectral redistributions can be achieved by single or multiple switching of magnetic field in nuclear targets. Our scheme can generate x-ray spectral lines with tenfold intensity enhancement and spectral width narrower than four times the nuclear natural linewidth. The present results pave the way towards a brighter and flexible x-ray source for precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances using modern synchrotron radiation.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Dynamic Power Index Adjustment Based On Battery Level

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    This disclosure describes techniques for dynamic adjustment of output power index of a wireless remote controller device based on a detected battery level of the device. The battery voltage level of the device is periodically measured. When the level falls below a predetermined threshold, the output power index is adjusted to ensure that the total transmit power from the controller device lies within a specified range. Dynamic adjustment of transmit power via the power index adjustment enables the controller device to have a transmit power that lies between the power spectral distribution (PSD) target and the PSD limit (maximum) over a range of battery voltage values

    Noninvasive technique for measurement of heartbeat regularity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Zebrafish (<it>Danio rerio</it>), due to its optical accessibility and similarity to human, has emerged as model organism for cardiac research. Although various methods have been developed to assess cardiac functions in zebrafish embryos, there lacks a method to assess heartbeat regularity in blood vessels. Heartbeat regularity is an important parameter for cardiac function and is associated with cardiotoxicity in human being. Using stereomicroscope and digital video camera, we have developed a simple, noninvasive method to measure the heart rate and heartbeat regularity in peripheral blood vessels. Anesthetized embryos were mounted laterally in agarose on a slide and the caudal blood circulation of zebrafish embryo was video-recorded under stereomicroscope and the data was analyzed by custom-made software. The heart rate was determined by digital motion analysis and power spectral analysis through extraction of frequency characteristics of the cardiac rhythm. The heartbeat regularity, defined as the rhythmicity index, was determined by short-time Fourier Transform analysis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The heart rate measured by this noninvasive method in zebrafish embryos at 52 hour post-fertilization was similar to that determined by direct visual counting of ventricle beating (<it>p </it>> 0.05). In addition, the method was validated by a known cardiotoxic drug, terfenadine, which affects heartbeat regularity in humans and induces bradycardia and atrioventricular blockage in zebrafish. A significant decrease in heart rate was found by our method in treated embryos (<it>p </it>< 0.01). Moreover, there was a significant increase of the rhythmicity index (p < 0.01), which was supported by an increase in beat-to-beat interval variability (<it>p </it>< 0.01) of treated embryos as shown by Poincare plot.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The data support and validate this rapid, simple, noninvasive method, which includes video image analysis and frequency analysis. This method is capable of measuring the heart rate and heartbeat regularity simultaneously via the analysis of caudal blood flow in zebrafish embryos. With the advantages of rapid sample preparation procedures, automatic image analysis and data analysis, this method can potentially be applied to cardiotoxicity screening assay.</p
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