57 research outputs found

    Effects of precipitation conditions on the membrane morphology and permeation characteristics

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    [[abstract]]The permeability and permselectivity of asymmetric and particulate membranes towards glucose and proteins of various molecular sizes were studied. It was found that the skin layer of asymmetric membranes was permeable to glucose and insulin but effectively prevent the permeation of immunoglobulins. This result parallels our interest for the development of artificial pancreas. It was also found that skinless particulate membranes exhibited not only high permeation rates with respect to albumin and immunoglobulins but also good selectivity between these components. Thus, particulate membranes has the potential to be used in separating albumin from immunoglobulins for treating disorders related to immunoglobulin abnormalities.[[notice]]補正完畢[[journaltype]]國外[[incitationindex]]SCI[[incitationindex]]E


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    Multiple platelet transfusions can induce alloimmunization. Alloimmunization involving platelet membrane antigens has been characterized by failure to achieve the expected post-transfusion platelet levels; this is a clinical status frequently referred to as refractoriness to platelet transfusion

    Clinical features and major histocompatibility complex genes as potential susceptibility factors in pediatric immune thrombocytopenia

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    Background/PurposeImmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disorder with diverse response rates to treatments that include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), and splenectomy. The predisposing causes of this autoimmune disorder, one of which is immunogenetic susceptibility, have not been fully determined. We investigated whether clinical features and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes influence the occurrence, treatment response, and disease duration of childhood ITP in Taiwan.MethodsWe performed HLA genotyping of 70 Taiwanese children with ITP and of 70 healthy controls and compared the data. Demographic data were also collected and evaluated.ResultsThe frequencies of heterozygous HLA-A11 and the HLA-Cw1 allele were both significantly decreased in the ITP group (p = 0.0160 and p = 0.0089, respectively), whereas the frequency of heterozygous HLA-DQ5 was significantly increased in the ITP group (p = 0.0057). Patients with HLA-DRB1*11 or -DRB1*15 were more likely to respond poorly to corticosteroids than IVIG (p = 0.0446 and p = 0.0008, respectively). In addition, we observed a positive association between HLA-A11 homozygosity and the development of persistent or chronic ITP [odds ratio (OR) = 6.3165, p = 0.0479]. The presence of HLA-DRB1*08 was, however, negatively correlated with the development of persistent or chronic ITP (OR = 0.1729, p = 0.0657). Children with antecedent of preceding illness (API) and with a younger age of onset were more likely to experience a better treatment response and shorter course of ITP.ConclusionWe suggest that API, age of onset, and particular HLA class I and class II alleles, may be involved in and influence the occurrence and disease duration of childhood ITP, as well as responses to different therapeutic approaches

    Tet oncogene family member 2 gene alterations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia

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    Background/PurposeMutations in the tet oncogene family member 2 gene (TET2) are frequently found in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Reports of TET2 mutations in children are limited. We assessed the prevalence of TET2 mutations in Taiwanese children with AML and analyzed their prognosis.MethodsBetween 1997 and 2010, a total of 69 consecutive children with AML were enrolled at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The analysis for TET2 mutations was performed using direct sequencing. Clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with and without TET2 alterations.ResultsIntronic and missense mutations were identified. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were observed. Two putative disease-causing missense mutations (S609C and A1865G) were identified in one patient. We estimated the prevalence of TET2 mutations in the current patient population to be 1.4%. The most common polymorphism was I1762V (45%), followed by V218M (12%), P29R (6%), and F868L (6%). Patients with polymorphism I1762V had an increased 10-year survival rate compared with patients without I1762V (48.4% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.049) by Chi-square test; OS was not different when examined using the Kaplan–Meier method (p = 0.104).ConclusionThe prevalence of TET2 mutations in children with AML compared with adults with AML was lower and less complex. Patient prognosis associated with TET2 mutations in children requires further investigation

    Nuclear GRP75 Binds Retinoic Acid Receptors to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Neuroblastoma

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    Retinoic acid (RA) has been approved for the differentiation therapy of neuroblastoma (NB). Previous work revealed a correlation between glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) and the RA-elicited neuronal differentiation of NB cells. The present study further demonstrated that GRP75 translocates into the nucleus and physically interacts with retinoid receptors (RARα and RXRα) to augment RA-elicited neuronal differentiation. GRP75 was required for RARα/RXRα-mediated transcriptional regulation and was shown to reduce the proteasome-mediated degradation of RARα/RXRαin a RA-dependent manner. More intriguingly, the level of GRP75/RARα/RXRα tripartite complexes was tightly associated with the RA-induced suppression of tumor growth in animals and the histological grade of differentiation in human NB tumors. The formation of GRP75/RARα/RXRα complexes was intimately correlated with a normal MYCN copy number of NB tumors, possibly implicating a favorable prognosis of NB tumors. The present findings reveal a novel function of nucleus-localized GRP75 in actively promoting neuronal differentiation, delineating the mode of action for the differentiation therapy of NB by RA

    Studies on the Effect of Surface Properties on the Biocompatibility of Polyurethane Membranes

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    To study the effect of surface properties on the biocompatibility of biomaterials based on the same material, polyurethane membranes with different surface properties were prepared. Myoblast culture and interleukin-1 (IL-1) generation in an air pouch model and in vitro monocyte culture were used to examine biocompatibility of different polyurethane membranes. Polyurethane membranes were found to exhibit significant differences depending on their surface properties prepared by different fabrication processes. When myoblasts were cultured on polyurethane surfaces, the smooth and hydrophobic membrane (F1), prepared by the solvent evaporation process, showed the greatest inhibition of myoblast adhesion compared with other porous and hydrophilic membranes (F2 , F3 and F4), prepared by immersing the polymer solution into a precipitation bath. In contrast , IL-1 generation by monocytes/macrophages on the membrane F 1 was more severe than those on the porous and hydrophilic membranes. Based on our results, the interaction of biomaterials with various cells is discussed