266 research outputs found

    Escherichia coli proteomics and bioinformatics

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    A lot of things happen to proteins when Escherichia coli cells enter stationary phase, such as protein amount, post-translational modifications, conformation changes, and component of protein complex. Proteomics, which study the whole component of proteins, can be used to study the products of the genome and the physiology of Escherichia coli cells at different conditions. By comparing proteome from different growth phases, such as exponential and stationary phase, a lot of proteins with changes can be identified at the same time, which provides a pilot for further studies of mechanism. Current global proteomic studies have identified about 27% of the annotated proteins of E. coli, most of which are predicted to be abundance proteins. Subproteomics, the study of specific subsets of the proteome, can be used to study specific functional classes of proteins and low abundance proteins. In this dissertation, using non-denatured anion exchange column with 2D SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry, difference of E. coli cells between exponential and stationary phase were studied for whole soluble proteome. Also, using heparin column and mass spectrometry with tandem mass spectrometry, heparin-binding proteins were identified and analyzed for exponential growth and stationary phases. To manage and display the data generated by proteomics, a web-based database has been constructed for experiments in E. coli proteomics (EEP), which includes NonDeLC, Heparome, AIX/2D PAGE and other proteomic studies

    Defining NASH from a multi-omics systems biology perspective

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    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease affecting up to 6.5% of the general population. There is no simple definition of NASH, and the molecular mechanism underlying disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Studies applying single omics technologies have enabled a better understanding of the molecular profiles associated with steatosis and hepatic inflammation—the commonly accepted histologic features for diagnosing NASH, as well as the discovery of novel candidate biomarkers. Multi-omics analysis holds great potential to uncover new insights into disease mechanism through integrating multiple layers of molecular information. Despite the technical and computational challenges associated with such efforts, a few pioneering studies have successfully applied multi-omics technologies to investigate NASH. Here, we review the most recent technological developments in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics. We summarize multi-omics studies and emerging omics biomarkers in NASH and highlight the biological insights gained through these integrated analyses

    miR-144-3p Promotes Adipogenesis Through Releasing C/EBPα From Klf3 and CtBP2

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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, have been proved as novel and potent regulators of adipogenesis. A previous study has found out that miR-144-3p was a biomarker of type 2 diabetes, but the role of miR-144-3p in regulating adipogenesis was still unclear. In the present study, the expression of miR-144-3p increased in obese mice and during the 3T3-L1 differentiation process. Overexpression of miR-144-3p suppressed the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors and inhibited pre-adipocytes proliferation. Besides, overexpression of miR-144-3p accelerated lipid accumulation in adipocytes and positively regulated adipogenesis, which was also accompanied by increasing the expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis and decreasing the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, luciferase activity assays indicated that miR-144-3p directly targeted Klf3 and CtBP2. The process was also confirmed by the mRNA and protein expression of Klf3 and CtBP2, which were suppressed by miR-144-3p. Furthermore, miR-144-3p targeting Klf3/CtBP2 would induce C/EBPα activity by releasing corepressors (Klf3 and CtBP2) from its promoter region. Moreover, we also observed that miR-144-3p could promote adipogenesis in mice injected with miR-144-3p agomir through tail-vein injection. Taken together, these results support that miR-144-3p can facilitate adipogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, which implies that miR-144-3p could be a target for therapeutic intervention in obesity and metabolic syndrome in the future

    Regulatory controls of duplicated gene expression during fiber development in allotetraploid cotton.

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    Polyploidy complicates transcriptional regulation and increases phenotypic diversity in organisms. The dynamics of genetic regulation of gene expression between coresident subgenomes in polyploids remains to be understood. Here we document the genetic regulation of fiber development in allotetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum by sequencing 376 genomes and 2,215 time-series transcriptomes. We characterize 1,258 genes comprising 36 genetic modules that control staged fiber development and uncover genetic components governing their partitioned expression relative to subgenomic duplicated genes (homoeologs). Only about 30% of fiber quality-related homoeologs show phenotypically favorable allele aggregation in cultivars, highlighting the potential for subgenome additivity in fiber improvement. We envision a genome-enabled breeding strategy, with particular attention to 48 favorable alleles related to fiber phenotypes that have been subjected to purifying selection during domestication. Our work delineates the dynamics of gene regulation during fiber development and highlights the potential of subgenomic coordination underpinning phenotypes in polyploid plants. [Abstract copyright: © 2023. The Author(s).
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