465 research outputs found

    A type system for components

    Get PDF
    In modern distributed systems, dynamic reconfiguration, i.e., changing at runtime the communication pattern of a program, is chal- lenging. Generally, it is difficult to guarantee that such modifications will not disrupt ongoing computations. In a previous paper, a solution to this problem was proposed by extending the object-oriented language ABS with a component model allowing the programmer to: i) perform up- dates on objects by means of communication ports and their rebinding; and ii) precisely specify when such updates can safely occur in an object by means of critical sections. However, improper rebind operations could still occur and lead to runtime errors. The present paper introduces a type system for this component model that extends the ABS type system with the notion of ports and a precise analysis that statically enforces that no object will attempt illegal rebinding

    What Research Is Needed to Stop TB? Introducing the TB Research Movement

    Get PDF
    Christian Lienhardt and colleagues describe the development of the TB Research Movement, which aims to create a framework for concrete actions to harmonize and synergize TB research efforts globally

    Reversing Single Sessions

    Get PDF
    Session-based communication has gained a widespread acceptance in practice as a means for developing safe communicating systems via structured interactions. In this paper, we investigate how these structured interactions are affected by reversibility, which provides a computational model allowing executed interactions to be undone. In particular, we provide a systematic study of the integration of different notions of reversibility in both binary and multiparty single sessions. The considered forms of reversibility are: one for completely reversing a given session with one backward step, and another for also restoring any intermediate state of the session with either one backward step or multiple ones. We analyse the costs of reversing a session in all these different settings. Our results show that extending binary single sessions to multiparty ones does not affect the reversibility machinery and its costs

    On the Integration of Automatic Deployment into the ABS Modeling Language

    Get PDF
    In modern software systems, deployment is an integral and critical part of application development (see, e.g., the DevOps approach to software development). Nevertheless, deployment is usually overlooked at the modeling level, thus losing the possibility to perform deployment conscious decisions during the early stages of development. In this paper, we address the problem of promoting deployment as an integral part of modeling, by focusing on the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language used for the specification of models of systems composed of concurrent objects consuming resources provided by deployment components. We extend ABS with class annotations expressing the resource requirements of the objects of that class. Then we define a tool that, starting from a high-level declaration of the desired system, computes a model instance of such system that optimally distributes objects over available deployment components

    Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. CONCLUSION: In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity

    Childhood tuberculosis: progress requires an advocacy strategy now

    Get PDF
    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable infectious disease that remains overlooked by public health authorities, health policy makers and TB control programmes. Childhood TB contributes significantly to the burden of disease and represents the failure to control transmission in the community. Furthermore, the pool of infected children constitutes a reservoir of infection for the future burden of TB. It is time to prioritise childhood TB, advocate for addressing the challenges and grasp the opportunities in its prevention and control. Herein, we propose a scientifically informed advocacy agenda developed at the International Childhood TB meeting held in Stockholm, Sweden, from March 17 to 18, 2011, which calls for a renewed effort to improve the situation for children affected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease. The challenges and needs in childhood TB are universal and apply to all settings and must be addressed more effectively by all stakeholders
    • …