181 research outputs found

    Boundary and Interface CFTs from the Conformal Bootstrap

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    40 pages, many figures v2: new results on 3d O(N) bulk spectrum added, one appendix eliminated, typos corrected, references updated. v3: two references to high precision Monte Carlo data added; they nicely agree with our bootstrap calculations. Matches published version. v4: results for the extraordinary transition for N=2,3 removed: see added noteWe explore some consequences of the crossing symmetry for defect conformal field theories, focusing on codimension one defects like flat boundaries or interfaces. We study surface transitions of the 3d Ising and other O(N) models through numerical solutions to the crossing equations with the method of determinants. In the extraordinary transition, where the low-lying spectrum of the surface operators is known, we use the bootstrap equations to obtain information on the bulk spectrum of the theory. In the ordinary transition the knowledge of the low-lying bulk spectrum allows to calculate the scale dimension of the relevant surface operator, which compares well with known results of two-loop calculations in 3d. Estimates of various OPE coefficients are also obtained. We also analyze in 4-epsilon dimensions the renormalization group interface between the O(N) model and the free theory and check numerically the results in 3d

    Calogero-Sutherland Approach to Defect Blocks

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    Extended objects such as line or surface operators, interfaces or boundaries play an important role in conformal field theory. Here we propose a systematic approach to the relevant conformal blocks which are argued to coincide with the wave functions of an integrable multi-particle Calogero-Sutherland problem. This generalizes a recent observation in 1602.01858 and makes extensive mathematical results from the modern theory of multi-variable hypergeometric functions available for studies of conformal defects. Applications range from several new relations with scalar four-point blocks to a Euclidean inversion formula for defect correlators.Comment: v2: changes for clarit

    Recycling CO2from flue gas for CaCO3nanoparticles production as cement filler: A Life Cycle Assessment

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    CaCO3 nanoparticles as filler have received considerable attention for the mechanical improvement that they provide to cements. However, their life-cycle impact on the environment remains almost unexplored, even if the cement industry is considered one of the largest CO2 emitters. In this perspective, this research work assessed a novel method for using CO2 from cement flue gases to produce nanoCaCO3 as cement filler within the cradle to cradle thinking. For this purpose, two routes of CO2 capture were assessed followed by the study of the synthesis of CaCO3 through a mineral carbonation. Three scenarios for the synthesis of CaCO3 nanoparticles were assessed targeting the use of waste or by-products as raw materials and recirculation of them to reduce any kind of emission. The three scenarios were evaluated by means of the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Once the best considered route for nanoCaCO3 production was determined, this research work examined the environmental effect of including 2 wt% of CaCO3 nanoparticles into the cement. Closing the loop follows a circular economy approach since the CO2 is captured within the same cement factory. The results were compared with conventional Portland cement. Regarding nanoCaCO3 results, the scenario with simultaneous production of NH4Cl, and using as calcium source CaCl2 deriving from the soda ash Solvay process, proved to be the best option. Moreover, when cement was filled with 2 wt% of this nanoCaCO3, the benefit in terms of emission reductions in the Climate Change category was higher than 60 % compared to the conventional Portland cement.This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 768583- RECODE project (Recycling carbon dioxide in the cement industry to produce added-value additives: a step towards a CO2 circular economy, https://www.recodeh2020.eu/). This paper reflects only the author's view and the content is the sole responsibility of the authors. The European Commission or its services cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.Publicad

    Nano CaCO3 particles in cement mortars towards developing a circular economy in the cement industry

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    This paper calls into question the effects of incorporating nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles in cement mortars, as they are interesting additive materials already successfully tested as cement nanofiller. These nanoparticles could potentially be prepared through the carbonation route using CO2 from combustion gases from the cement industry. This could enable a circular-economy approach for carbon capture and its re-use within the cement industry, in a sustainable and synergistic manner. In this study, part of the cement content was substituted with commercial nano CaCO3 particles to investigate their effects on the flexural and compressive strength of the resulting cement mortars, after curing for 7 and 28 days. Decreasing the cement content could lead to a reduction in the carbon footprint of cement, which is responsible for approximately 8% of global carbon dioxide emissions. Preliminary results using synthesized CaCO3 particles as nanofillers showed that, after 7 days of curing, mechanical properties of cement mortars improved. This indicates that hydration reaction was accelerated since CaCO3 acts as seeding for this reaction. By contrast, after 28 days of curing, no major improvement was observed. A higher content of calcium carbonate nanoparticles may have reduced the filler effect of these particles due to aggregation phenomena. In the present work, the effects of commercial nano CaCO3 particles on cement hydration were investigated. Mechanical tests showed promising results both after 7 and 28 days of curing. This could lead to the reduction of the carbon footprint of cement manufacturing and produce increasingly better performing building materials. Thus, the development of a circular economy in the cement industry could be achieved

    Evaluation of the mechanical properties of cements with fillers derived from the CO2 reduction of cement plants

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    This work introduces a novel method for the development of CO2 recovery systems derived from the production process of cement in order to obtain CaCO3 nanofiller in cement-based composites. Research was carried out in collaboration between the Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT) and the Department of Structural, Construction and Geotechnical Engineering (DISEG) of Politecnico di Torino. The objective of this method was dual. Firstly, it aimed to obtain a precipitated calcium carbonate - nanoCaCO3 - with a high degree of purity. Secondly, it aimed to optimize the characteristics of these nanoparticles e.g. additional percentages, morphology, particle size distribution or crystal phase, according to their use in cement-based composites. The synthesized nanoCaCO3 particles were subsequently added into the cementitious composites in different percentages according to the weight of the cement, in order to understand their behaviour within the cement matrix. The mechanical properties were also evaluated, both at 7 and 28 days, through three point bending and compression tests. The results of the mechanical tests showed a promising improvement in strength and toughness. This study is a first step towards developing a CO2 circular economy

    Target structure independent 7Li‚Éó^7\vec{Li} elastic scattering at low momentum transfers

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    Analyzing powers and cross sections for the elastic scattering of polarized 7Li by targets of 6Li, 7Li and 12C are shown to depend only on the properties of the projectile for momentum transfers of less than 1.0 fm-1. The result of a detailed analysis of the experimental data within the framework of the coupled channels model with ground state reorientation and transitions to the excited states of the projectile and targets included in the coupling schemes are presented. This work suggests that nuclear properties of weakly-bound nuclei can be tested by elastic scattering experiments, independent of the target used, if data are acquired for momentum transfers less than ~1.0 fm-1.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, 1 table, accepted in Phys. Lett.

    The Complete One-Loop Dilation Operator of N=2 SuperConformal QCD

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    We evaluate the full planar one-loop dilation operator of N=2 SuperConformal QCD, the SU(N_c) super Yang-Mills theory with N_f = 2 N_c fundamental hypermultiplets, in the flavor-singlet sector. Remarkably, the spin-chain Hamiltonian turns out to be completely fixed by superconformal symmetry, as in N=4 SYM. We present a more general calculation, for the superconformal quiver theory with SU(N_c)X SU(N_c) gauge group, which interpolates between N=2 SCQCD and the Z_2 orbifold of N=4 SYM; here symmetry fixes the Hamiltonian up to a single parameter, corresponding to the ratio of the two marginal gauge couplings.Comment: v2: typo corrected, cosmetic changes. JHEP versio

    From Scattering Amplitudes to the Dilatation Generator in N=4 SYM

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    The complete spin chain representation of the planar N=4 SYM dilatation generator has long been known at one loop, where it involves leading nearest-neighbor 2 -> 2 interactions. In this work we use superconformal symmetry to derive the unique solution for the leading L -> 2 interactions of the planar dilatation generator for arbitrarily large L. We then propose that these interactions are given by the scattering operator that has N=4 SYM tree-level scattering amplitudes as matrix elements. We provide compelling evidence for this proposal, including explicit checks for L=2,3 and a proof of consistency with superconformal symmetry.Comment: 39 pages, v2: reference added and minor changes, published versio

    On the order of an automorphism of a smooth hypersurface

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    In this paper we give an effective criterion as to when a positive integer q is the order of an automorphism of a smooth hypersurface of dimension n and degree d, for every d>2, n>1, (n,d)\neq (2,4), and \gcd(q,d)=\gcd(q,d-1)=1. This allows us to give a complete criterion in the case where q=p is a prime number. In particular, we show the following result: If X is a smooth hypersurface of dimension n and degree d admitting an automorphism of prime order p then p(d-1)^n then X is isomorphic to the Klein hypersurface, n=2 or n+2 is prime, and p=\Phi_{n+2}(1-d) where \Phi_{n+2} is the (n+2)-th cyclotomic polynomial. Finally, we provide some applications to intermediate jacobians of Klein hypersurfaces
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