2,218 research outputs found

    Development of pulse shape discrimination methods for BEGe detectors

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    Genome based cell population heterogeneity promotes tumorigenicity: the evolutionary mechanism of cancer.

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    Cancer progression represents an evolutionary process where overall genome level changes reflect system instability and serve as a driving force for evolving new systems. To illustrate this principle it must be demonstrated that karyotypic heterogeneity (population diversity) directly contributes to tumorigenicity. Five well characterized in vitro tumor progression models representing various types of cancers were selected for such an analysis. The tumorigenicity of each model has been linked to different molecular pathways, and there is no common molecular mechanism shared among them. According to our hypothesis that genome level heterogeneity is a key to cancer evolution, we expect to reveal that the common link of tumorigenicity between these diverse models is elevated genome diversity. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) was used to compare the degree of karyotypic heterogeneity displayed in various sublines of these five models. The cell population diversity was determined by scoring type and frequencies of clonal and non-clonal chromosome aberrations (CCAs and NCCAs). The tumorigenicity of these models has been separately analyzed. As expected, the highest level of NCCAs was detected coupled with the strongest tumorigenicity among all models analyzed. The karyotypic heterogeneity of both benign hyperplastic lesions and premalignant dysplastic tissues were further analyzed to support this conclusion. This common link between elevated NCCAs and increased tumorigenicity suggests an evolutionary causative relationship between system instability, population diversity, and cancer evolution. This study reconciles the difference between evolutionary and molecular mechanisms of cancer and suggests that NCCAs can serve as a biomarker to monitor the probability of cancer progression

    Chinese Wheat Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots at Low Temperature

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    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this method, it is possible to target most endogenous genes and downregulate the messenger RNA (mRNA) in a sequence-specific manner. Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) has a bipartite, single-strand positive RNA genome, and can infect both wheat and Nicotiana benthamiana, and the optimal temperature for systemic infection in plants is 17°C. To assess the potential of the virus as a vector for gene silencing at low temperature, a fragment of the N. benthamiana or wheat phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was expressed from a modified CWMV RNA2 clone and the resulting photo bleaching in infected plants was used as a reporter for silencing. Downregulation of PDS mRNA was also measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In experiments using fragments of PDS ranging from 500 to 1500 nucleotides, insert length influenced the stability and the efficiency of VIGS. The CWMV induced silencing system was also used to suppress miR165/166 and miR3134a through expression of miRNA target mimics. The relative expression levels of mature miR165/166 and miR3134a decreased whereas the transcript levels of their target genes increased. Interestingly, we also found the CWMV-induced silencing system was more efficient compare with the vector based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) or Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) in wheat or the vector based on TRV in N. benthamiana at 17°C. In summary, the CWMV vector is effective in silencing endogenous genes and miRNAs at 17°C, thereby providing a powerful tool for gene function analysis in both N. benthamiana and wheat at low temperature

    Direct Measurements of Absolute Branching Fractions for D0 and D+ Inclusive Semimuonic Decays

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    By analyzing about 33 pb1\rm pb^{-1} data sample collected at and around 3.773 GeV with the BES-II detector at the BEPC collider, we directly measure the branching fractions for the neutral and charged DD inclusive semimuonic decays to be BF(D0μ+X)=(6.8±1.5±0.7)BF(D^0 \to \mu^+ X) =(6.8\pm 1.5\pm 0.7)% and BF(D+μ+X)=(17.6±2.7±1.8)BF(D^+ \to \mu^+ X) =(17.6 \pm 2.7 \pm 1.8)%, and determine the ratio of the two branching fractions to be BF(D+μ+X)BF(D0μ+X)=2.59±0.70±0.25\frac{BF(D^+ \to \mu^+ X)}{BF(D^0 \to \mu^+ X)}=2.59\pm 0.70 \pm 0.25

    Measurement of branching fractions for the inclusive Cabibbo-favored ~K*0(892) and Cabibbo-suppressed K*0(892) decays of neutral and charged D mesons

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    The branching fractions for the inclusive Cabibbo-favored ~K*0 and Cabibbo-suppressed K*0 decays of D mesons are measured based on a data sample of 33 pb-1 collected at and around the center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV with the BES-II detector at the BEPC collider. The branching fractions for the decays D+(0) -> ~K*0(892)X and D0 -> K*0(892)X are determined to be BF(D0 -> \~K*0X) = (8.7 +/- 4.0 +/- 1.2)%, BF(D+ -> ~K*0X) = (23.2 +/- 4.5 +/- 3.0)% and BF(D0 -> K*0X) = (2.8 +/- 1.2 +/- 0.4)%. An upper limit on the branching fraction at 90% C.L. for the decay D+ -> K*0(892)X is set to be BF(D+ -> K*0X) < 6.6%

    Direct Measurements of the Branching Fractions for D0Ke+νeD^0 \to K^-e^+\nu_e and D0πe+νeD^0 \to \pi^-e^+\nu_e and Determinations of the Form Factors f+K(0)f_{+}^{K}(0) and f+π(0)f^{\pi}_{+}(0)

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    The absolute branching fractions for the decays D0Ke+νeD^0 \to K^-e ^+\nu_e and D0πe+νeD^0 \to \pi^-e^+\nu_e are determined using 7584±198±3417584\pm 198 \pm 341 singly tagged Dˉ0\bar D^0 sample from the data collected around 3.773 GeV with the BES-II detector at the BEPC. In the system recoiling against the singly tagged Dˉ0\bar D^0 meson, 104.0±10.9104.0\pm 10.9 events for D0Ke+νeD^0 \to K^-e ^+\nu_e and 9.0±3.69.0 \pm 3.6 events for D0πe+νeD^0 \to \pi^-e^+\nu_e decays are observed. Those yield the absolute branching fractions to be BF(D0Ke+νe)=(3.82±0.40±0.27)BF(D^0 \to K^-e^+\nu_e)=(3.82 \pm 0.40\pm 0.27)% and BF(D0πe+νe)=(0.33±0.13±0.03)BF(D^0 \to \pi^-e^+\nu_e)=(0.33 \pm 0.13\pm 0.03)%. The vector form factors are determined to be f+K(0)=0.78±0.04±0.03|f^K_+(0)| = 0.78 \pm 0.04 \pm 0.03 and f+π(0)=0.73±0.14±0.06|f^{\pi}_+(0)| = 0.73 \pm 0.14 \pm 0.06. The ratio of the two form factors is measured to be f+π(0)/f+K(0)=0.93±0.19±0.07|f^{\pi}_+(0)/f^K_+(0)|= 0.93 \pm 0.19 \pm 0.07.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Measurements of the observed cross sections for e+ee^+e^-\to exclusive light hadrons containing π0π0\pi^0\pi^0 at s=3.773\sqrt s= 3.773, 3.650 and 3.6648 GeV

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    By analyzing the data sets of 17.3, 6.5 and 1.0 pb1^{-1} taken, respectively, at s=3.773\sqrt s= 3.773, 3.650 and 3.6648 GeV with the BES-II detector at the BEPC collider, we measure the observed cross sections for e+eπ+ππ0π0e^+e^-\to \pi^+\pi^-\pi^0\pi^0, K+Kπ0π0K^+K^-\pi^0\pi^0, 2(π+ππ0)2(\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0), K+Kπ+ππ0π0K^+K^-\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0\pi^0 and 3(π+π)π0π03(\pi^+\pi^-)\pi^0\pi^0 at the three energy points. Based on these cross sections we set the upper limits on the observed cross sections and the branching fractions for ψ(3770)\psi(3770) decay into these final states at 90% C.L..Comment: 7 pages, 2 figure

    Partial wave analysis of J/\psi \to \gamma \phi \phi

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    Using 5.8×107J/ψ5.8 \times 10^7 J/\psi events collected in the BESII detector, the radiative decay J/ψγϕϕγK+KKS0KL0J/\psi \to \gamma \phi \phi \to \gamma K^+ K^- K^0_S K^0_L is studied. The ϕϕ\phi\phi invariant mass distribution exhibits a near-threshold enhancement that peaks around 2.24 GeV/c2c^{2}. A partial wave analysis shows that the structure is dominated by a 0+0^{-+} state (η(2225)\eta(2225)) with a mass of 2.240.02+0.030.02+0.032.24^{+0.03}_{-0.02}{}^{+0.03}_{-0.02} GeV/c2c^{2} and a width of 0.19±0.030.04+0.060.19 \pm 0.03^{+0.06}_{-0.04} GeV/c2c^{2}. The product branching fraction is: Br(J/ψγη(2225))Br(η(2225)ϕϕ)=(4.4±0.4±0.8)×104Br(J/\psi \to \gamma \eta(2225))\cdot Br(\eta(2225)\to \phi\phi) = (4.4 \pm 0.4 \pm 0.8)\times 10^{-4}.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures. corrected proof for journa

    Measurements of the observed cross sections for exclusive light hadron production in e^+e^- annihilation at \sqrt{s}= 3.773 and 3.650 GeV

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    By analyzing the data sets of 17.3 pb1^{-1} taken at s=3.773\sqrt{s}=3.773 GeV and 6.5 pb1^{-1} taken at s=3.650\sqrt{s}=3.650 GeV with the BESII detector at the BEPC collider, we have measured the observed cross sections for 12 exclusive light hadron final states produced in e+ee^+e^- annihilation at the two energy points. We have also set the upper limits on the observed cross sections and the branching fractions for ψ(3770)\psi(3770) decay to these final states at 90% C.L.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figur
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