80 research outputs found

    Characterizing AGB stars in Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) bands

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    Since asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are bright and extended infrared objects, most Galactic AGB stars saturate the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) detectors and therefore the WISE magnitudes that are restored by applying point-spread-function fitting need to be verified. Statistical properties of circumstellar envelopes around AGB stars are discussed on the basis of a WISE AGB catalog verified in this way. We cross-matched an AGB star sample with the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog and the Two Mircon All Sky Survey catalog. Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectra of a subsample of WISE AGB stars were also exploited. The dust radiation transfer code DUSTY was used to help predict the magnitudes in the W1 and W2 bands, the two WISE bands most affected by saturation, for calibration purpose, and to provide physical parameters of the AGB sample stars for analysis. DUSTY is verified against the ISO spectra to be a good tool to reproduce the spectral energy distributions of these AGB stars. Systematic magnitude-dependent offsets have been identified in WISE W1 and W2 magnitudes of the saturated AGB stars, and empirical calibration formulas are obtained for them on the basis of 1877 (W1) and 1558 (W2) AGB stars that are successfully fit with DUSTY. According to the calibration formulae, the corrections for W1 at 5 mag and W2 at 4 mag are −0.383-0.383 and 0.217 mag, respectively. In total, we calibrated the W1/W2 magnitudes of 2390/2021 AGB stars. The model parameters from the DUSTY and the calibrated WISE W1 and W2 magnitudes are used to discuss the behavior of the WISE color-color diagrams of AGB stars. The model parameters also reveal that O-rich AGB stars with opaque circumstellar envelopes are much rarer than opaque C-rich AGB stars toward the anti-Galactic center direction, which we attribute to the metallicity gradient of our Galaxy.Comment: 9 pages in two column format, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Inside-out growth or inside-out quenching? clues from colour gradients of local galaxies

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    We constrain the spatial gradient of star formation history within galaxies using the colour gradients in NUV-u and u-i for a local spatially-resolved galaxy sample. By splitting each galaxy into an inner and an outer part, we find that most galaxies show negative gradients in these two colours. We first rule out dust extinction gradient and metallicity gradient as the dominant source for the colour gradient. Then using stellar population models, we explore variations in star formation history to explain the colour gradients. As shown by our earlier work, a two-phase SFH consisting of an early secular evolution (growth) phase and a subsequent rapid evolution (quenching) phase is necessary to explain the observed colour distributions among galaxies. We explore two different inside-out growth models and two different inside-out quenching models by varying parameters of the SFH between inner and outer regions of galaxies. Two of the models can explain the observed range of colour gradients in NUV-u and u-i colours. We further distinguish them using an additional constraint provided by the u-i colour gradient distribution, under the assumption of constant galaxy formation rate and a common SFH followed by most galaxies. We find the best model is an inside-out growth model in which the inner region has a shorter e-folding time scale in the growth phase than the outer region. More spatially resolved ultraviolet (UV) observations are needed to improve the significance of the result.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    The Quenching Timescale and Quenching Rate of Galaxies

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    The average star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies has been declining since the redshift of 2. A fraction of galaxies quench and become quiescent. We constrain two key properties of the quenching process: the quenching timescale and the quenching rate among galaxies. We achieve this by analyzing the galaxy number density profile in NUV−u color space and the distribution in NUV−u versus u − i color–color diagram with a simple toy-model framework. We focus on galaxies in three mass bins between 1010 and 1010.6 M ⊙. In the NUV−u versus u − i color–color diagram, the red u − i galaxies exhibit a different slope from the slope traced by the star-forming galaxies. This angled distribution and the number density profile of galaxies in NUV−u space strongly suggest that the decline of the SFR in galaxies has to accelerate before they turn quiescent. We model this color–color distribution with a two-phase exponential decline star formation history. The models with an e-folding time in the second phase (the quenching phase) of 0.5 Gyr best fit the data. We further use the NUV−u number density profile to constrain the quenching rate among star-forming galaxies as a function of mass. Adopting an e-folding time of 0.5 Gyr in the second phase (or the quenching phase), we found the quenching rate to be 19%/Gyr, 25%/Gyr and 33%/Gyr for the three mass bins. These are upper limits of the quenching rate as the transition zone could also be populated by rejuvenated red-sequence galaxies

    Simultaneous modelling of gas and stellar metallicity in galaxies: strong early outflow vs variable IMF

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    The origin and cosmic evolution of the gas metallicity and stellar metallicity vs galaxy mass relations are a matter of hot debate. Usually, these relations are studied separately, and there is no comprehensive model that can explain both simultaneously. As the stellar metallicity carries information about the early epochs of chemical enrichment in galaxies, while gas metallicity reflects more recent evolutionary processes, the simultaneous study of both will set the stringent constraints to galaxy formation and evolution across cosmic time. Here we show a unified model aiming at reproducing both relations simultaneously. As input data we use integrated spectra from SDSS, with carefully derived stellar and gas metallicities

    The Quenching Timescale and Quenching Rate of Galaxies

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    The average star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies has been declining since the redshift of 2. A fraction of galaxies quench and become quiescent. We constrain two key properties of the quenching process: the quenching timescale and the quenching rate among galaxies. We achieve this by analyzing the galaxy number density profile in NUV−u color space and the distribution in NUV−u versus u − i color–color diagram with a simple toy-model framework. We focus on galaxies in three mass bins between 1010 and 1010.6 M ⊙. In the NUV−u versus u − i color–color diagram, the red u − i galaxies exhibit a different slope from the slope traced by the star-forming galaxies. This angled distribution and the number density profile of galaxies in NUV−u space strongly suggest that the decline of the SFR in galaxies has to accelerate before they turn quiescent. We model this color–color distribution with a two-phase exponential decline star formation history. The models with an e-folding time in the second phase (the quenching phase) of 0.5 Gyr best fit the data. We further use the NUV−u number density profile to constrain the quenching rate among star-forming galaxies as a function of mass. Adopting an e-folding time of 0.5 Gyr in the second phase (or the quenching phase), we found the quenching rate to be 19%/Gyr, 25%/Gyr and 33%/Gyr for the three mass bins. These are upper limits of the quenching rate as the transition zone could also be populated by rejuvenated red-sequence galaxies
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