349 research outputs found

    Modeling Spacing Distribution of Queuing Vehicles in Front of a Signalized Junction Using Random-Matrix Theory

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    Modeling of headway/spacing between two consecutive vehicles has many applications in traffic flow theory and transport practice. Most known approaches only study the vehicles running on freeways. In this paper, we propose a model to explain the spacing distribution of queuing vehicles in front of a signalized junction based on random-matrix theory. We show that the recently measured spacing distribution data well fit the spacing distribution of a Gaussian symplectic ensemble (GSE). These results are also compared with the spacing distribution observed for car parking problem. Why vehicle-stationary-queuing and vehicle-parking have different spacing distributions (GSE vs GUE) seems to lie in the difference of driving patterns

    Integration of Photonic Crystals into Flexible Dye Solar Cells: A Route toward Bendable and Adaptable Optoelectronic Devices Displaying Structural Color and Enhanced Efficiency

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    Herein is presented what is believed to be the fi rst example of integration of photonic structures in a fl exible optoelectronic device. The resulting devices may be designed to display any color in the visible range and, simultaneously, present enhanced power conversion effi ciency as a consequence of the increased light harvesting caused by the colored back refl ection. The achievement results from the incorporation of nanoparticle-based multilayers with photonic crystal properties that are modifi ed to be compatible with the chemical and physical processing of fl exible nanocrystalline titania electrodes of dye solar cells. The photovoltaic performance of these colored fl exible cells remains unaltered after one hundred bending cycles, thus showing the high-mechanical stability of the ensemble. These devices reunite most characteristics required for building integration or for the construction of solar window panes, such as light weight, stability upon bending, adaptability, and color. This work may trigger promising applications of these highly adaptable and versatile photonic crystals in other fl exible devicesEuropean Union 307081, 622533Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad MAT2014-54852-

    Coherent manipulation of spin wave vector for polarization of photons in an atomic ensemble

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    We experimentally demonstrate the manipulation of two-orthogonal components of a spin wave in an atomic ensemble. Based on Raman two-photon transition and Larmor spin precession induced by magnetic field pulses, the coherent rotations between the two components of the spin wave is controllably achieved. Successively, the two manipulated spin-wave components are mapped into two orthogonal polarized optical emissions, respectively. By measuring Ramsey fringes of the retrieved optical signals, the \pi/2-pulse fidelity of ~96% is obtained. The presented manipulation scheme can be used to build an arbitrary rotation for qubit operations in quantum information processing based on atomic ensembles

    Time Series Outlier Detection Based on Sliding Window Prediction

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    In order to detect outliers in hydrological time series data for improving data quality and decision-making quality related to design, operation, and management of water resources, this research develops a time series outlier detection method for hydrologic data that can be used to identify data that deviate from historical patterns. The method first built a forecasting model on the history data and then used it to predict future values. Anomalies are assumed to take place if the observed values fall outside a given prediction confidence interval (PCI), which can be calculated by the predicted value and confidence coefficient. The use of PCI as threshold is mainly on the fact that it considers the uncertainty in the data series parameters in the forecasting model to address the suitable threshold selection problem. The method performs fast, incremental evaluation of data as it becomes available, scales to large quantities of data, and requires no preclassification of anomalies. Experiments with different hydrologic real-world time series showed that the proposed methods are fast and correctly identify abnormal data and can be used for hydrologic time series analysis

    Quantum Interference of Stored Coherent Spin-wave Excitations in a Two-channel Memory

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    Quantum memories are essential elements in long-distance quantum networks and quantum computation. Significant advances have been achieved in demonstrating relative long-lived single-channel memory at single-photon level in cold atomic media. However, the qubit memory corresponding to store two-channel spin-wave excitations (SWEs) still faces challenges, including the limitations resulting from Larmor procession, fluctuating ambient magnetic field, and manipulation/measurement of the relative phase between the two channels. Here, we demonstrate a two-channel memory scheme in an ideal tripod atomic system, in which the total readout signal exhibits either constructive or destructive interference when the two-channel SWEs are retrieved by two reading beams with a controllable relative phase. Experimental result indicates quantum coherence between the stored SWEs. Based on such phase-sensitive storage/retrieval scheme, measurements of the relative phase between the two SWEs and Rabi oscillation, as well as elimination of the collapse and revival of the readout signal, are experimentally demonstrated
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