351,165 research outputs found

    Surgery on links with unknotted components and three-manifolds

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    It is shown that any closed three-manifold M obtained by integral surgery on a knot in the three-sphere can always be constructed from integral surgeries on a 3-component link L with each component being an unknot in the three-sphere. It is also interesting to notice that infinitely many different integral surgeries on the same link L could give the same three-manifold M.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figure

    What is NP? - Interpretation of a Chinese paradox "white horse is not horse"

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    The notion of nondeterminism has disappeared from the current definition of NP, which has led to ambiguities in understanding NP, and caused fundamental difficulties in studying the relation P versus NP. In this paper, we question the equivalence of the two definitions of NP, the one defining NP as the class of problems solvable by a nondeterministic Turing machine in polynomial time, and the other defining NP as the class of problems verifiable by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time, and reveal cognitive biases in this equivalence. Inspired from a famous Chinese paradox white horse is not horse, we further analyze these cognitive biases. The work shows that these cognitive biases arise from the confusion between different levels of nondeterminism and determinism, due to the lack of understanding about the essence of nondeterminism. Therefore, we argue that fundamental difficulties in understanding P versus NP lie firstly at cognition level, then logic level

    On free ZpZ_p-torus actions in dimension two and three

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    We confirm the Halperin-Carlsson Conjecture for free ZpZ_p-torus actions (p is a prime) on 2-dimensional finite CW-complexes and free Z2Z_2-torus actions on compact 3-manifolds.Comment: 26 pages, no figure. The contents of the paper are reorganized and some proofs are simplifie

    On lower bounds of the sum of multigraded Betti numbers of simplicial complexes

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    We find some general lower bounds of the sum of certain families of multigraded Betti numbers of any simplicial complex with a vertex coloring.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figures. Minor revisions are made (two pictures and some new references are added

    On the constructions of free and locally standard Z_2-torus actions on Manifolds

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    We introduce an elementary way of constructing principal (Z_2)^m-bundles over compact smooth manifolds. In addition, we will define a general notion of locally standard (Z_2)^m-actions on closed manifolds for all m>0, and then give a general way to construct all such (Z_2)^m-actions from the orbit space. Some related topology problems are also studied.Comment: 28 pages, 12 figures, some minor revisions are made, one picture and one reference are added

    Quantum Boson Algebra and Poisson Geometry of the Flag Variety

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    In his work on crystal bases \cite{Kas}, Kashiwara introduced a certain degeneration of the quantized universal enveloping algebra of a semi-simple Lie algebra g\mathfrak g, which he called a quantum boson algebra. In this paper, we construct Kashiwara operators associated to all positive roots and use them to define a variant of Kashiwara's quantum boson algebra. We show that a quasi-classical limit of the positive half of our variant is a Poisson algebra of the form (PC[n],{  ,  }P)(P \simeq \mathbb C[\mathfrak n^{\ast}], \, \{~~,~~\}_P), where n\mathfrak n is the positive part of g\mathfrak g and {  ,  }P\{~~,~~\}_P is a Poisson bracket that has the same rank as, but is different from, the Kirillov-Kostant bracket {  ,  }KK\{~~,~~\}_{KK} on n\mathfrak n^{\ast}. Furthermore, we prove that, in the special case of type AA, any linear combination a1{  ,  }P+a2{  ,  }KKa_1 \{~~,~~\}_P + a_2 \{~~,~~\}_{KK}, a1,a2Ca_1, a_2 \in \mathbb C, is again a Poisson bracket. In the general case, we establish an isomorphism of PP and the Poisson algebra of regular functions on the open Bruhat cell in the flag variety. In type AA, we also construct a Casimir function on the open Bruhat cell, together with its quantization, which may be thought of as an analog of the linear function on n\mathfrak n^{\ast} defined by a root vector for the highest root

    Cubes and Generalized Real Bott Manifolds

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    We define a notion of facets-pairing structure and its seal space on a nice manifold with corners. We will study facets-pairing structures on any cube in detail and investigate when the seal space of a facets-pairing structure on a cube is a closed manifold. In particular, for any binary square matrix AA with zero diagonal in dimension n, there is a canonical facets-pairing structure FAF_A on the n-dimensional cube. We will show that all the closed manifolds that we can obtain from the seal spaces of such FAF_A's are neither more nor less than all the generalized real Bott manifolds --- a special class of real toric manifolds introduced by Choi, Masuda and Suh.Comment: Some small changes were made to the previous version. The introduction part was expanded and a new reference was adde

    Gaiotto's Lagrangian subvarieties via loop groups

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    The purpose of this note is to give a simple proof of the fact that a certain substack, defined in [2], of the moduli stack TBunG(Σ)T^{\ast}Bun_G(\Sigma) of Higgs bundles over a curve Σ\Sigma, for a connected, simply connected semisimple group GG, possesses a Lagrangian structure. The substack, roughly speaking, consists of images under the moment map of global sections of principal GG-bundles over Σ\Sigma twisted by a smooth symplectic variety with a Hamiltonian GG-action

    A quantum homomorphic encryption scheme for polynomial-sized circuits

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    Quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) is an encryption method that allows quantum computation to be performed on one party's private data with the program provided by another party, without revealing much information about the data nor about the program to the opposite party. It is known that information-theoretically-secure QHE for circuits of unrestricted size would require exponential resources, and efficient computationally-secure QHE schemes for polynomial-sized quantum circuits have been constructed. In this paper we first propose a QHE scheme for a type of circuits of polynomial depth, based on the rebit quantum computation formalism. The scheme keeps the restricted type of data perfectly secure. We then propose a QHE scheme for a larger class of polynomial-depth quantum circuits, which has partial data privacy. Both schemes have good circuit privacy. We also propose an interactive QHE scheme with asymptotic data privacy, however, the circuit privacy is not good, in the sense that the party who provides the data could cheat and learn about the circuit. We show that such cheating would generally affect the correctness of the evaluation or cause deviation from the protocol. Hence the cheating can be caught by the opposite party in an interactive scheme with embedded verifications. Such scheme with verification has a minor drawback in data privacy. Finally, we show some methods which achieve some nontrivial level of data privacy and circuit privacy without resorting to allowing early terminations, in both the QHE problem and in secure evaluation of classical functions. The entanglement and classical communication costs in these schemes are polynomial in the circuit size and the security parameter (if any).Comment: 29 pages, 2 figures. Revised Section VIII, among other minor fixe

    Small Cover and Halperin-Carlsson Conjecture

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    We prove that the Halperin-Carlsson conjecture holds for any free (Z_2)^m action on a compact manifold whose orbit space is a small cover. In addition, we show that if the total space of a principal (Z_2)^m bundle over a small cover is connected, it must be equivalent to a partial quotient of the corresponding real moment-angle manifold with some canonical Z_2-torus action.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure. The article is significantly expanded from the previous version, and some references are adde
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