59 research outputs found

    Simultaneous cooling of coupled mechanical oscillators using whispering gallery mode resonances

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    We demonstrate simultaneous center-of-mass cooling of two coupled oscillators, consisting of a microsphere-cantilever and a tapered optical fiber. Excitation of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of the microsphere, via the evanescent field of the taper, provides a transduction signal that continuously monitors the relative motion between these two microgram objects with a sensitivity of 3 pm. The cavity enhanced optical dipole force is used to provide feedback damping on the motion of the micron-diameter taper, whereas a piezo stack is used to damp the motion of the much larger (up to 180μ180\,\mum in diameter), heavier (up to 1.5×1071.5\times 10^{-7}\,kg) and stiffer microsphere-cantilever. In each feedback scheme multiple mechanical modes of each oscillator can be cooled, and mode temperatures below 10 K are reached for the dominant mode, consistent with limits determined by the measurement noise of our system. This represents stabilization on the picometer level and is the first demonstration of using WGM resonances to cool the mechanical modes of both the WGM resonator and its coupling waveguide.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figure

    Racism, Equity and inclusion in Research Funding.

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    SCIENCE DEPENDS ON RESEARCH FUNDING Government funded research grants from United Kingdom Research and Innovation (UKRI) are the lifeblood of our research ecosystem in science, engineering, technology, mathematics and medicine (STEMM). These grants pay the salaries of researchers, support staff and technicians, allow academics to buy consumables and equipment, and cement partnerships, including access to world class facilities. This pre-determines what knowledge is produced. Winning grants is vital to career progression from being a PhD student, to developing independence as an early career researcher, to running your own lab and hiring a research team. Whilst this article recognises the systemic barriers in progression in higher education and STEMM careers1 that privilege2 ‘white’ people, we focus on evidence within the grant funding system to consider discrepancies in who is given the opportunity to do research and why this matters

    Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height

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    Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with ~700 common associated variants identified so far through genome - wide association studies . Here , we report 83 height - associated coding variants with lower minor allele frequenc ies ( range of 0.1 - 4.8% ) and effects of up to 2 16 cm /allele ( e.g. in IHH , STC2 , AR and CRISPLD2 ) , >10 times the average effect of common variants . In functional follow - up studies, rare height - increasing alleles of STC2 (+1 - 2 cm/allele) compromise d proteolytic inhibition of PAPP - A and increased cleavage of IGFBP - 4 in vitro , resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin - like growth factors . The se 83 height - associated variants overlap genes mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates ( e.g. ADAMTS3, IL11RA, NOX4 ) and pathways ( e.g . proteoglycan/ glycosaminoglycan synthesis ) involved in growth . Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low - frequency variants of moderate to large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes , and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways

    Don't hesitate, innovate

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    Quantum sensing with nanoparticles for gravimetry: when bigger is better

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    Following the first demonstration of a levitated nanosphere cooled to the quantum ground state in 2020 [1], macroscopic quantum sensors are seemingly on the horizon. The nanosphere's large mass as compared to other quantum systems enhances the susceptibility of the nanoparticle to gravitational and inertial forces. In this viewpoint we describe the features of experiments with optically levitated nanoparticles [2] and their proposed utility for acceleration sensing. Unique to the levitated nanoparticle platform is the ability to implement not only quantum noise limited transduction, predicted by quantum metrology to reach sensitivities on the order of 101510^{-15}ms2^{-2} [3], but also long-lived quantum spatial superpositions for enhanced gravimetry. This follows a global trend in developing sensors, such as cold-atom interferometers, that exploit superposition or entanglement. Thanks to significant commercial development of these existing quantum technologies, we discuss the feasibility of translating levitated nanoparticle research into applications.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures, 1 table; table adapted to fix typos in the superscripts of the predicted sensitivity of the 'Lev. spin-mechanics' entry and the achieved sensitivity for the 'Opto-MEMS' entry in Table

    Characterization and Testing of a Micro-g Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Accelerometer

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    Assessment of DNA damage of Lewis lung carcinoma cells irradiated by carbon ions and X-rays using alkaline comet assay

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    DNA damage and cell reproductive death determined by alkaline comet and clonogenic survival assays were examined in Lewis lung carcinoma cells after exposure to 89.63 MeV/u carbon ion and 6 MV X-ray irradiations, respectively. Based on the survival data, Lewis lung carcinoma cells were verified to be more radiosensitive to the carbon ion beam than to the X-ray irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value, which was up to 1.77 at 10% survival level, showed that the DNA damage induced by the high-LET carbon ion beam was more remarkable than that induced by the low-LET X-ray irradiation. The dose response curves of '' Tail DNA (%)'' (TD) and "Olive tail moment" (OTM) for the carbon ion irradiation showed saturation beyond about 8 Gy. This behavior was not found in the X-ray curves. Additionally, the carbon ion beam produced a lower survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) value and a higher initial Olive tail moment 2 Gy (OTM2) than those for the X-ray irradiation. These results suggest that carbon ion beams having high-LET values produced more severe cell reproductive death and DNA damage in Lewis lung carcinoma cells in comparison with X-rays and comet assay might be an effective predictive test even combining with clonogenic assay to assess cellular radio sensitivit

    Quantum physics in space

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    Advances in quantum technologies are giving rise to a revolution in the way fundamental physics questions are explored at the empirical level. At the same time, they are the seeds for future disruptive technological applications of quantum physics. Remarkably, a space-based environment may open many new avenues for exploring and employing quantum physics and technologies. Recently, space missions employing quantum technologies for fundamental or applied studies have been proposed and implemented with stunning results. The combination of quantum physics and its space application is the focus of this review: we cover both the fundamental scientific questions that can be tackled with quantum technologies in space and the possible implementation of these technologies for a variety of academic and commercial purposes
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