76 research outputs found

    Capacity Expansion of High Renewable Penetrated Energy Systems Considering Concentrating Solar Power for Seasonal Energy Balance

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    With the increasing proportion of variable renewable energy which owns fluctuation characteristics and the promotion of the Clean Heating policy, the seasonal energy imbalance of the system has been more and more challenging. There is a lack of effective means to mitigate this challenge under the background of gradual compression of the traditional thermal unit construction. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a promising technology to replace thermal units by integrating emergency boilers to cope with extreme weather, and can meet long-time energy balance as a seasonal peak regulation source. In this paper, we propose a long-term high-resolution expansion planning model of the energy system under high renewable penetration which integrates CSP technology for seasonal energy balance. With the projection to 2050, by taking the energy system in Xinjiang province which is a typical area of the Clean Heating project with rich irradiance as a case study, it shows that the optimal deployment of CSP and electric boiler (EB) can reduce the cost, peak-valley difference of net load and renewable curtailment by 8.73%, 19.72% and 58.24% respectively at 65% renewable penetration compared to the base scenario.Comment: 17 pages, 13 figure

    Calculation model of concrete-filled steel tube arch bridges based on the “arch effect”

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    In view of the limitations of the current code based on the equivalent beam-column method with the “rod mode” instead of the “arch mode” for the calculation of concrete-filled steel tube arch bridges, this paper takes the real bearing mechanism of the arch as the starting point and analyzes the different bearing mechanisms of the arch and eccentric pressurized column. The concrete-filled steel tube arch model test was carried out to analyze the deformation state and damage mode, and the geometric non-linear bending moment of the measured arch was compared with the bending moment value calculated by the eccentricity increase coefficient of the “rod mode.” The results showed that the transfer of internal force is from the axial force to the arch axis, causing the vertical reaction force and horizontal thrust. However, the eccentric compression column only produced the vertical force at the bottom and combines with the lateral deformation indirectly generated by the eccentric distance. In addition, the deformation stage of the arch is basically the same as that of the eccentric compression column. The final failure mode of the arch is 4-hinge damage, and the final failure mode of the eccentric compression column is single-hinge damage. The preliminary geometric non-linear bending moment value obtained by the two modes accords well. Therefore, the main factors for the difference in the bearing mechanism between the two modes are different force structures, force transmission routes, and sources of deformation. Due to the difference in the bearing mechanism, the final failure mode is different, and the deformation ability of the arch is weakened by using the “rod mode” instead of the “arch mode.” The geometric non-linear bending moment of the control section calculated by the eccentricity increase coefficient is conservative, but the influence of the geometric non-linearity of other sections is not considered enough

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the lower atmosphere and surface waters of the Chinese Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary

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    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in the forms of neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the gas phase of air and ionic perfluoroalkyl substances in the dissolved phase of surface water, were investigated during a sampling campaign in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and Yangtze River estuary in May 2012. In the gas phase, the concentrations of neutral Sigma PFASs were within the range of 76-551 pg/m(3). Higher concentrations were observed in the South Yellow Sea. 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the predominant compound as it accounted for 92%-95% of neutral Sigma PFASs in all air samples. Air mass backward trajectory analysis indicated that neutral Sigma PFASs came mainly from the coast of the Yellow Sea, including the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces of China, and the coastal region of South Korea. The fluxes of gas phase dry deposition, were simulated for neutral PFASs, and neutral Sigma PFASs fluxes varied from 0.37 to 23 pg/m(2)/s. In the dissolved phase of the surface water, concentrations of ionic Sigma PFASs ranged from 1.6 to 118 ng/L, with the Bohai Sea exhibiting higher concentrations than both the Yellow Sea and the Yangtze River estuary. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound accounting for 51%-90% of the ionic Sigma PFAS concentrations. Releases from industrial and domestic activities as well as the semiclosed geographical conditions increased the level of ionic Sigma PFASs in the Bohai Sea. The spatial distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were different significantly. The Laizhou Bay was the major source region of PFCAs and the Yangtze River estuary was the major source of PFSAs. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    A Sub-Electron-Noise Multi-Channel Cryogenic Skipper-CCD Readout ASIC

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    The \emph{MIDNA} application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is a skipper-CCD readout chip fabricated in a 65 nm LP-CMOS process that is capable of working at cryogenic temperatures. The chip integrates four front-end channels that process the skipper-CCD signal and performs differential averaging using a dual slope integration (DSI) circuit. Each readout channel contains a pre-amplifier, a DC restorer, and a dual-slope integrator with chopping capability. The integrator chopping is a key system design element in order to mitigate the effect of low-frequency noise produced by the integrator itself, and it is not often required with standard CCDs. Each channel consumes 4.5 mW of power, occupies 0.156 mm2{^2} area and has an input referred noise of 2.7μνrms{\mu\nu}_{rms}. It is demonstrated experimentally to achieve sub-electron noise when coupled with a skipper-CCD by means of averaging samples of each pixel. Sub-electron noise is shown in three different acquisition approaches. The signal range is 6000 electrons. The readout system achieves 0.2e{e^{-}} RMS by averaging 1000 samples with MIDNA both at room temperature and at 180 Kelvin

    Performance of the X-Calibur Hard X-Ray Polarimetry Mission during its 2018/19 Long-Duration Balloon Flight

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    X-Calibur is a balloon-borne telescope that measures the polarization of high-energy X-rays in the 15--50keV energy range. The instrument makes use of the fact that X-rays scatter preferentially perpendicular to the polarization direction. A beryllium scattering element surrounded by pixellated CZT detectors is located at the focal point of the InFOC{\mu}S hard X-ray mirror. The instrument was launched for a long-duration balloon (LDB) flight from McMurdo (Antarctica) on December 29, 2018, and obtained the first constraints of the hard X-ray polarization of an accretion-powered pulsar. Here, we describe the characterization and calibration of the instrument on the ground and its performance during the flight, as well as simulations of particle backgrounds and a comparison to measured rates. The pointing system and polarimeter achieved the excellent projected performance. The energy detection threshold for the anticoincidence system was found to be higher than expected and it exhibited unanticipated dead time. Both issues will be remedied for future flights. Overall, the mission performance was nominal, and results will inform the design of the follow-up mission XL-Calibur, which is scheduled to be launched in summer 2022.Comment: 19 pages, 31 figures, submitted to Astropart. Phy

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Study on Influence of Moisture Content on Strength and Brittle-Plastic Failure Characteristics of Xiashu Loess

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    To reveal the influence of water content on the strength characteristics and brittle-plastic failure process of Xiashu loess, the direct shear test and unconfined compressive strength test of Xiashu loess with different water content were carried out, and the influence of water content on its strength characteristics and brittle-plastic failure transformation characteristics was studied. Eight kinds of Xiashu loess with different moisture contents were designed, and a direct shear test and uniaxial compression test were carried out, respectively. The results show that with the increase in water content, the shear strength and unconfined compressive strength of Xiashu loess decrease continuously. The influence of water content on cohesion in the shear strength index is greater than that of the internal friction angle. The relationship curve between cohesion and internal friction angle and water content shows obvious segmentation. When approaching the optimal water content, the downward trend is slowed down. When the water content is constant, the shear strength of the sample will also increase with the increase of normal stress. When the water content is 12% to 15%, the failure mode of Xiashu loess is a brittle failure, and the unconfined compressive strength decreases by 43.23%. When the water content is 15% to 16%, the failure mode of Xiashu loess is a transitional failure, and the unconfined compressive strength decreases by 60.38%. When the water content is greater than 16%, Xiashu loess shows plastic failure, and the unconfined compressive strength decreases slightly
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