831 research outputs found

    Variations in language use:The influence of linguistic and social factors

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    One of the significant characteristics of language is flexibility. On the one hand, people have various ways to convey certain information to a given addressee. For example, when quoting previous utterances, people can use direct quotations (direct speech) or indirect quotations (indirect speech), depending on which perspective they are taking. On the other hand, people talk about the same things in different ways depending on with whom they are communicating with. For instance, people talk more politely when communicating with individuals who are more powerful compared to individuals who are peers or less powerful. In this dissertation, I focused on factors that contribute to decisions between different ways of communication. To investigate this question, I took the use of direct and indirect speech as a cut-in point. I first examined how linguistic and social factors influenced the use of direct and indirect speech in a narrative task. I further explored the influence of social factors on language production in other contexts (e.g., offline vs. online communication). Taken together, findings from this dissertation suggest that both intrinsic characteristics of the utterance itself and extrinsic characteristics, such as psychological distance between speaker and listener and the listener’s knowledge level, play a role in language production processes

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    Variations in language use:The influence of linguistic and social factors

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    Low-Multi-Rank High-Order Bayesian Robust Tensor Factorization

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    The recently proposed tensor robust principal component analysis (TRPCA) methods based on tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD) have achieved numerous successes in many fields. However, most of these methods are only applicable to third-order tensors, whereas the data obtained in practice are often of higher order, such as fourth-order color videos, fourth-order hyperspectral videos, and fifth-order light-field images. Additionally, in the t-SVD framework, the multi-rank of a tensor can describe more fine-grained low-rank structure in the tensor compared with the tubal rank. However, determining the multi-rank of a tensor is a much more difficult problem than determining the tubal rank. Moreover, most of the existing TRPCA methods do not explicitly model the noises except the sparse noise, which may compromise the accuracy of estimating the low-rank tensor. In this work, we propose a novel high-order TRPCA method, named as Low-Multi-rank High-order Bayesian Robust Tensor Factorization (LMH-BRTF), within the Bayesian framework. Specifically, we decompose the observed corrupted tensor into three parts, i.e., the low-rank component, the sparse component, and the noise component. By constructing a low-rank model for the low-rank component based on the order-dd t-SVD and introducing a proper prior for the model, LMH-BRTF can automatically determine the tensor multi-rank. Meanwhile, benefiting from the explicit modeling of both the sparse and noise components, the proposed method can leverage information from the noises more effectivly, leading to an improved performance of TRPCA. Then, an efficient variational inference algorithm is established for parameters estimation. Empirical studies on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of both qualitative and quantitative results

    Predator-prey survival pressure is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviors

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    The comprehension of how local interactions arise in global collective behavior is of utmost importance in both biological and physical research. Traditional agent-based models often rely on static rules that fail to capture the dynamic strategies of the biological world. Reinforcement learning has been proposed as a solution, but most previous methods adopt handcrafted reward functions that implicitly or explicitly encourage the emergence of swarming behaviors. In this study, we propose a minimal predator-prey coevolution framework based on mixed cooperative-competitive multiagent reinforcement learning, and adopt a reward function that is solely based on the fundamental survival pressure, that is, prey receive a reward of 1-1 if caught by predators while predators receive a reward of +1+1. Surprisingly, our analysis of this approach reveals an unexpectedly rich diversity of emergent behaviors for both prey and predators, including flocking and swirling behaviors for prey, as well as dispersion tactics, confusion, and marginal predation phenomena for predators. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the collective behavior of organisms and highlights the potential applications in swarm robotics

    Perceptual Generative Adversarial Networks for Small Object Detection

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    Detecting small objects is notoriously challenging due to their low resolution and noisy representation. Existing object detection pipelines usually detect small objects through learning representations of all the objects at multiple scales. However, the performance gain of such ad hoc architectures is usually limited to pay off the computational cost. In this work, we address the small object detection problem by developing a single architecture that internally lifts representations of small objects to "super-resolved" ones, achieving similar characteristics as large objects and thus more discriminative for detection. For this purpose, we propose a new Perceptual Generative Adversarial Network (Perceptual GAN) model that improves small object detection through narrowing representation difference of small objects from the large ones. Specifically, its generator learns to transfer perceived poor representations of the small objects to super-resolved ones that are similar enough to real large objects to fool a competing discriminator. Meanwhile its discriminator competes with the generator to identify the generated representation and imposes an additional perceptual requirement - generated representations of small objects must be beneficial for detection purpose - on the generator. Extensive evaluations on the challenging Tsinghua-Tencent 100K and the Caltech benchmark well demonstrate the superiority of Perceptual GAN in detecting small objects, including traffic signs and pedestrians, over well-established state-of-the-arts
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