13 research outputs found

    Occupational Prestige and Labor Market Institutions

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    In this paper, we ask a question whether regulation of professions is related to occupational prestige by employees. We investigate, whether legal control of an access to selected professions is related with these professionsÔÇÖ prestige and in which circumstances. The question seems to be significant from the perspective of peoplesÔÇÖ decisions about desired career paths. Occupational prestige may by itself affect utility of workers. Analysis of the determinants of occupational prestige still constitutes an underexploited niche. In this paper we aim to respond to this lacuna and provide a systematic analysis of the problem from institutional perspective. We draw on literature in new institutional economics, law and economics, labor economics, and related fieldsto conceptualize the possible channels and directions of institutionsÔÇÖ impact on occupational prestige. We also conduct the empirical research, basing on the data since 1992 till 2010 for Polish labor market and verify whether conclusions from the literature, are valid in this case. It turned out that factors significant for employeeÔÇÖs subjective prestige perception are restrictions concerning an access to a profession, income, age, education, marital status and parentsÔÇÖ professional prestige. The obtained results contribute to a better understanding of the nature of labor market institutions and their impact on peopleÔÇÖs decisions regarding career, and provide theoretical underpinnings for empirical studies. The outcome of the econometric research on the occupational prestige in relation top articular Polish institutional settings serve as a base for polemics with theoretical issues and may be valuable for labor market policy design

    Models and measures to evaluate the effectiveness of funds utilization for scientific research and development of advanced technologies

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    The purpose of this report was to construct some alternative methods to estimate the effectiveness of investments in scientific research and development of advanced technologies, especially their long-term effects. The Study Group decided to focus on the sub-problem of finding the relation between the spending on science and the quality of science itself. As a result, we have developed two independent methodologies. The most promising one is based on the theory of time-delay systems, which allows capturing effects of the time-lag between the use of funds and the results related to scientific work. Moreover, the methodology gives an opportunity to seek the optimal spending scenario that would fulfill some prescribed constraints (e.g. it would minimize costs and at the same time remain above a desired level of quality of science). The second methodology is premised on Stochastic Frontier Analysis and it can be applied to determine the form of relation between the amount of financing and the results of scientific work. It offers considerable advantages for analyses of several forms of relation at once (production functions) and for a suitable choice of the best one. Both methods are promising, however, additional work is necessary to apply them successfully to some real-life problems

    ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIRING FORMS DEDICATED TO MANAGERIAL POSITIONS IN POLAND

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    This paper deals with the economic analysis of hiring forms dedicated to managerial positions. Theoretical frames for corporate governance are based on agency theory. Crucial problems considered within agency theory are: information asymmetry, conflict of interests and supervision (monitoring) of management. Presented analysis covers also remuneration forms and managerÔÇÖs participation in ownership. Theoretical underpinnings of this research supports the analysis of managers hiring methods available in Poland (managerial contracts and employment contracts) in order to point out the solution, which reduces agency costs to the greatest extent

    An Institutional Approach to Trade Union Density. The Case of Legal Origins and Political Ideology

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    Which institutions may be important in terms of trade union density and how significant they are? Although the status of trade unions may be very different among states, unions are still a very meaningful component of labour markets. In this paper, we contribute to the debate about the institutions that may affect the outcome of trade unions in different legal systems. Firstly, we draw on the theoretical underpinnings of trade union activity and density. Then, we conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between trade union density in a particular country, countryÔÇÖs legal origins and governmentÔÇÖs ideology. In this way, the paper enriches an underexploited niche in institutional research devoted to labour market issues

    The relationship between an employer and an employee - the gift exchange game

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    Models of the relationship between employees and employers presented during the undergraduate and graduate studies of economics usually reflect the formal neoclassical approach. Moreover, in everyday life as well as in the public debate those relations are often presented as conflicts in which only one party may win. Such an oversimplified approach to the labor market relationships does not correspond with reality and may affect people's decisions, treating the second party as an enemy. The article presents the multistage educational experiment (18 rounds), in which students play the roles of employers and employees. Their outcomes depend on the declared involvement, their remuneration, and the level of social trust. Results of the experiment reveal that all these factors depend heavily on students' openness to communicate with other players as well as the employer-employee matching. Participation in the experiment allows students to experience that even conflict-provoking labor market relationships do not have to go along with strong disputes and radical opportunism. Learning how to cooperate in the labor market could not only be economically profitable, but it can also help to build social capital, which is even more crucial

    Czy wzrost gospodarczy i wy┼╝sze wydatki na wojsko s─ů mo┼╝liwe jednocze┼Ťnie? Perspektywa endogeniczno┼Ťci

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    Drivers and outcomes of military expenditures are an important topic in geopolitics and public debate. It is often argued that increases in the military budget can boost the economy through extended military equipment production. What should then be noticeable is a feedback relationship between military expenditures and the current state of the economy. This paper investigates this reverse relationship at the macro level using an unbalanced panel dataset of 173 countries over the period 1949ÔÇô2020. Our empirical analysis implies that the claimed positive feedback loop between military expenditures and economic growth is either completely absent or, at most, very weak.Przyczyny i skutki wydatk├│w na cele wojskowe pozostaj─ů jednym z kluczowych obszar├│w geopolityki i debaty publicznej. Cz─Östo stwierdza si─Ö, ┼╝e zwi─Ökszenie bud┼╝etu na obronno┼Ť─ç mo┼╝e pobudzi─ç gospodark─Ö poprzez zwi─Ökszenie produkcji sprz─Ötu wojskowego. To, co powinno w├│wczas wyst─ůpi─ç, to sprz─Ö┼╝enie zwrotne pomi─Ödzy wydatkami wojskowymi a stanem gospodarki. Zasadniczym celem artyku┼éu jest zbadanie wskazanej odwrotnej relacji na poziomie kraj├│w przy u┼╝yciu niezr├│wnowa┼╝onego zestawu danych panelowych obejmuj─ůcego 173 kraje w latach 1949ÔÇô2020. Zaprezentowana analiza empiryczna wskazuje, ┼╝e badana relacja sprz─Ö┼╝enia zwrotnego mi─Ödzy wydatkami wojskowymi a wzrostem gospodarczym jest albo ca┼ékowicie nieobecna, albo co najwy┼╝ej bardzo s┼éaba

    De Jure and De Facto Institutions: Implications for Law and for Economics

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    The paper contributes to the debate on economic effects of law by extending the focus to the de jure ÔÇô de facto distinction. Identification of economic effects of legal rules has been the focus of law and economics for decades. However, the literature on the subject relates relatively rarely to de jure provisions; rather it deals with the way in which these rules de facto function in legal practice. The authors refer to the conceptualization of de jure and de facto institutions, as well as their interrelationships, and investigate the applications of this perspective to the literature on economic effects of law. Specifically, they focus on constitutional-legal institutions, including judicial independence, protection of constitutional rights, central bank independence, fiscal rules, independence of regulatory agencies, and protection of property rights. Their conclusions concern the validity of research on economic consequences of law and provide lessons for its further developmen

    Models and measures to evaluate the effectiveness of funds utilization for scientific research and development of advanced technologies

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    Powszechnie uwa┼╝a si─Ö, ┼╝e przeznaczanie ┼Ťrodków na badania naukowe i rozwój zaawansowanych technologii jest jednym z najbardziej op┼éacalnych sposobów inwestowania w d┼éu┼╝szym okresie czasu. Mimo licznych opracowa┼ä poruszaj─ůcych ten temat wci─ů┼╝ nie jest oczywiste, czy pieni─ůdze wydawane na badania naukowe przynosz─ů po┼╝─ůdane skutki. W efekcie, podnoszone przez polityków kwestie wieloletnich planów zwi─ůzanych z tymi inwestycjami, coraz cz─Ö┼Ťciej poddawane s─ů w─ůtpliwo┼Ťciom. Istniej─ůce dotychczas modele opisuj─ůce zale┼╝no┼Ťci pomi─Ödzy wydatkami na badania naukowe i zaawansowane technologie a wska┼║nikami bogactwa (np. PKB) wydaj─ů si─Ö by─ç z wielu powodów u┼éomne (np. z braku porównywalnych warunków lub zbyt ma┼éych zbiorów danych trudnych do uznania za istotne statystycznie). Przede wszystkim, narz─Ödzia takie jak Statystyka Nauki, Techniki i Innowacji czy metody ekonometryczne, nieparametryczne, scoringowe - po odpowiednich modyfikacjach - nie pozwalaj─ů na przeprowadzenie kompleksowej analizy efektywno┼Ťci inwestycji w badania naukowe i zaawansowane technologie. Taka analiza powinna obejmowa─ç zarówno nak┼éady, jak i efekty ich wykorzystania, które mog─ů pojawia─ç si─Ö z du┼╝ym opó┼║nieniem czasowym, jak np. liczba wdro┼╝e┼ä, zysk finansowy, czy wp┼éyw na gospodark─Ö i jako┼Ť─ç ┼╝ycia. Uwzgl─Ödnienie d┼éugofalowych efektów inwestycji w badania naukowe oraz umo┼╝liwienie ich prognozowania by┼éoby prze┼éomowym osi─ůgni─Öciem w ┼Ťwiecie nauki, które pozwoli┼éoby skuteczniej zarz─ůdza─ç ┼Ťrodkami finansowymi czy rozwojem nowoczesnych technologii. Celem projektu b─Ödzie opracowanie alternatywnych rozwi─ůza┼ä ilo┼Ťciowych s┼éu┼╝─ůcych do pomiaru efektywno┼Ťci inwestycji w badania naukowe i rozwój zaawansowanych technologii np. z wykorzystaniem metod ekonometrycznych, nieparametrycznych czy scoringowych. Wa┼╝nym elementem badania b─Ödzie zaproponowanie miar pozwalaj─ůcych na prognozowanie ich op┼éacalno┼Ťci w d┼éu┼╝szym okresie.The purpose of this report was to construct some alternative methods to estimate the effectiveness of investments in scientific research and development of advanced technologies, especially their long-term effects. Study Group decided to focus on the sub-problem of finding the relation between the spending on science and the quality of science itself. As a result, we have developed two independent methodologies. The most promising one is based on the theory of time-delay systems, which allows capturing effects of the time-lag between the use of funds and the results related to scientific work. Moreover, the methodology gives an opportunity to seek the optimal spending scenario that would fulfill some prescribed constraints (e.g. it would minimize costs and at the same time remain above a desired level of quality of science). The second methodology is premised on Stochastic Frontier Analysis and it can be applied to determine the form of relation between the amount of financing and the results of scientific work. It offers considerable advantages for analyses of several forms of relation at once (production functions) and for a suitable choice of the best one. Both methods are promising, however, additional work is necessary to apply them successfully to some real-life problems

    Regulacja rynku narkotyk├│w ÔÇô podej┼Ťcie instytucjonalne

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    The aim of the paper is to study the drug market regulations from the institutional economics perspective and to develop recommendations for policymakers. AuthorsÔÇÖ idea is that the government, which considers imposing regulations on drug market, ought to define aspects of this market, which require institutions and then, develop proper institutionsÔÇÖ efficiency or marketÔÇÖs efficiency criteria. What is more, it should analyse the outcomes achieved by other countries in the field of drug policy. Therefore, the article consists of three parts: market failures review regarding drug market characteristics, the efficiency of law measures (special reference to Pareto, Kaldor-Hicks or Posner criteria) and Portuguese drug policy effects analysis.Celem artyku┼éu jest analiza regulacji rynku narkotyk├│w z perspektywy ekonomii instytucjonalnej oraz opracowanie zalece┼ä dla decydent├│w politycznych. Zdaniem autor├│w rz─ůd, kt├│ry rozwa┼╝a na┼éo┼╝enie regulacji na rynek narkotykowy, musi okre┼Ťli─ç aspekty tego rynku, kt├│re wymagaj─ů instytucji, oraz kryteria badania efektywno┼Ťci tych instytucji. Ponadto, powinien przeanalizowa─ç rezultaty osi─ůgni─Öte przez inne kraje w zakresie polityki narkotykowej. Dlatego te┼╝ artyku┼é z┼éo┼╝ony jest z trzech cz─Ö┼Ťci: przegl─ůdu niedoskona┼éo┼Ťci, kt├│re mog─ů wyst─ůpi─ç na rynku narkotyk├│w, efektywno┼Ťci przepis├│w prawa (ze specjalnym uwzgl─Ödnieniem kryteri├│w Pareta, Kaldora-Hicksa oraz Posnera) oraz z analizy efekt├│w portugalskiej polityki narkotykowej. S┼éowa kluczowe: ekonomia regulacji; efektywno┼Ť─ç prawa; polityka narkotykow

    Foreign Ownership and Within-MNEs GVC Participation as Determinants of Innovation Activities: A CIS-Based Firm-Level Analysis

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    In this paper we study the relationship between foreign firm ownership and innovation activities in a wide group of West European and Central and East European countries. Based on a dataset including more than 100,000 firms covered by the 2014 edition of the Community Innovation Survey, we examine the role of home- and host country effects in firmsÔÇÖ decisions to introduce various forms of innovation. In addition, we identify a group of foreign-owned firms that specialize in exporting and interpret them as participants of hierarchic global value chains organized by multinational enterprises. We show that while foreign direct investment, especially from Germany, is positively associated with innovation, the opposite effect is observed in the case of hierarchic global value chainsÔÇÖ participants. The negative impact of within-multinationals global value chains on innovation is more pronounced in the affiliates located in the Central and East European countrie
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