1,645 research outputs found

    Tooth Contact Shift in Loaded Spiral Bevel Gears

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    An analytical method is presented to predict the shifts of the contact ellipses of spiral bevel gear teeth under load. The contact ellipse shift is the motion of the tooth contact position from the ideal pitch point to its location under load. The shifts are due to the elastic motions of the gear and pinion supporting shafts and bearings. The calculations include the elastic deflections of the gear shafts and the deflections of the four shaft bearings. The method assumes that the surface curvature of each tooth is constant near the unloaded pitch point. Results from these calculations will help designers reduce transmission weight without seriously reducing transmission performance

    Fast, scalable, Bayesian spike identification for multi-electrode arrays

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    We present an algorithm to identify individual neural spikes observed on high-density multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). Our method can distinguish large numbers of distinct neural units, even when spikes overlap, and accounts for intrinsic variability of spikes from each unit. As MEAs grow larger, it is important to find spike-identification methods that are scalable, that is, the computational cost of spike fitting should scale well with the number of units observed. Our algorithm accomplishes this goal, and is fast, because it exploits the spatial locality of each unit and the basic biophysics of extracellular signal propagation. Human intervention is minimized and streamlined via a graphical interface. We illustrate our method on data from a mammalian retina preparation and document its performance on simulated data consisting of spikes added to experimentally measured background noise. The algorithm is highly accurate

    Trust and control interrelations: New perspectives on the trust control nexus

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    This article is the post-print version of the published article that may be accessed at the link below. Copyright @ 2007 Sage Publications.This article introduces the special issue on New Perspectives on the Trust-Control Nexus in Organizational Relations. Trust and control are interlinked processes commonly seen as key to reach effectiveness in inter- and intraorganizational relations. The relation between trust and control is, however, a complex one, and research into this relation has given rise to various and contradictory interpretations of how trust and control relate. A well-known discussion is directed at whether trust and control are better conceived as substitutes, or as complementary mechanisms of governance. The articles in this special issue bring the discussion on the relationship between both concepts a step further by identifying common factors, distinctive mechanisms, and key implications relevant for theory building and empirical research. By studying trust and control through different perspectives and at different levels of analysis, the articles provide new theoretical insights and empirical evidence on the foundations of the trust-control interrelations

    Addressing potential sources of variation in several non-destructive techniques for measuring firmness in apples

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    Measurements of firmness have traditionally been carried out according to the Magness Taylor (MT) procedure; using a texture analyser or penetrometer in reference texture tests. Non-destructive tests like the acoustic impulse response of acoustic firmness sensors (AFSs), a low-mass impact firmness sensor Sinclair International (SIQ-FT) and impact test (Lateral Impact – UPM) have also been used to measure texture and firmness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of different sources of variation in these three non-destructive tests and to evaluate their respective capabilities of discriminating between fruit maturity at two different harvest dates, turgidity before and after dehydration treatment and ripening after different storage periods. According to our results, fruit studied an unexpected AFS trend with turgidity. Contact measurements (Lateral Impact – UPM and SIQ-FT) appeared highly sensitive to changes in turgidity, but were less able to follow changes in ripening caused by storage period. Contact measurements were suitable for detecting differences between fruits from different harvest dates and showed higher correlation coefficients with reference texture tests than acoustic measurements. The Lateral Impact – UPM test proved better at separating fruits according to turgidity than the SIQ-FT instrumen

    Small-Size Resonant Photoacoustic Cell of Inclined Geometry for Gas Detection

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    A photoacoustic cell intended for laser detection of trace gases is represented. The cell is adapted so as to enhance the gas-detection performance and, simultaneously, to reduce the cell size. The cell design provides an efficient cancellation of the window background (a parasite response due to absorption of laser beam in the cell windows) and acoustic isolation from the environment for an acoustic resonance of the cell. The useful photoacoustic response from a detected gas, window background and noise are analyzed in demonstration experiments as functions of the modulation frequency for a prototype cell with the internal volume ~ 0.5 cm^3. The minimal detectable absorption for the prototype is estimated to be ~ 1.2 10^{-8} cm^{-1} W Hz^{-1/2}.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    Measurements of π±\pi^\pm, K±^\pm, p and pˉ\bar{\textrm{p}} spectra in proton-proton interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

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    Measurements of inclusive spectra and mean multiplicities of π±\pi^\pm, K±^\pm, p and pˉ\bar{\textrm{p}} produced in inelastic p+p interactions at incident projectile momenta of 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c (s=\sqrt{s} = 6.3, 7.7, 8.8, 12.3 and 17.3 GeV, respectively) were performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer. Spectra are presented as function of rapidity and transverse momentum and are compared to predictions of current models. The measurements serve as the baseline in the NA61/SHINE study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter

    Multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations in inelastic proton-proton interactions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

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    Measurements of multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations of charged particles were performed in inelastic p+p interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c beam momentum. Results for the scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution and for three strongly intensive measures of multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations \$\Delta[P_{T},N]\$, \$\Sigma[P_{T},N]\$ and \$\Phi_{p_T}\$ are presented. For the first time the results on fluctuations are fully corrected for experimental biases. The results on multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations significantly deviate from expectations for the independent particle production. They also depend on charges of selected hadrons. The string-resonance Monte Carlo models EPOS and UrQMD do not describe the data. The scaled variance of multiplicity fluctuations is significantly higher in inelastic p+p interactions than in central Pb+Pb collisions measured by NA49 at the same energy per nucleon. This is in qualitative disagreement with the predictions of the Wounded Nucleon Model. Within the statistical framework the enhanced multiplicity fluctuations in inelastic p+p interactions can be interpreted as due to event-by-event fluctuations of the fireball energy and/or volume.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figure

    Measurements of π±\pi^\pm, K±K^\pm, KS0K^0_S, Λ\Lambda and proton production in proton-carbon interactions at 31 GeV/cc with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

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    Measurements of hadron production in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c are performed using the NA61/ SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. The analysis is based on the full set of data collected in 2009 using a graphite target with a thickness of 4% of a nuclear interaction length. Inelastic and production cross sections as well as spectra of π±\pi^\pm, K±K^\pm, p, KS0K^0_S and Λ\Lambda are measured with high precision. These measurements are essential for improved calculations of the initial neutrino fluxes in the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan. A comparison of the NA61/SHINE measurements with predictions of several hadroproduction models is presented.Comment: v1 corresponds to the preprint CERN-PH-EP-2015-278; v2 matches the final published versio