334 research outputs found

    Adaptability and efficiency of the CMS Level-1 Global Trigger firmware implementation for Phase-2

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    We present details on the new Level-1 Global Trigger at CMS for the upcoming high-luminosity operation of the LHC. Our focus is on the newly developed firmware, which employs a bottom-up generic approach to enhance menu adaptability and accommodate the increase in upstream data. We also highlight our efficient pipelining strategy that ensures excellent routability at 480 MHz. Furthermore, we discuss the firmware implementation for three prototypes targeting Serenity boards, together with their current and future testing and validation endeavours

    Design and implementation of Neural Network based conditions for the CMS Level-1 Global Trigger upgrade for the HL-LHC

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    The CMS detector will be upgraded to maintain, or even improve, the physics acceptance under the harsh data taking conditions foreseen during the High-Luminosity LHC operations. In particular, the trigger system (Level-1 and High Level Triggers) will be completely redesigned to utilize detailed information from sub-detectors at the bunch crossing rate: the upgraded Global Trigger will use high-precision trigger objects to provide the Level-1 decision. Besides cut-based algorithms, novel machine-learning-based algorithms will also be included in the Global Trigger to achieve a higher selection efficiency and detect unexpected signals. Implementation of these novel algorithms is presented, focusing on how the neural network models can be optimized to ensure a feasible hardware implementation. The performance and resource usage of the optimized neural network models are discussed in detail

    The Level-1 Global Trigger for Phase-2 Algorithms, configuration and integration in the CMS offline framework

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    For the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) operation, the Compact Muon Solenoid will undergo a significant upgrade and redesign. An upgraded Level-1 Trigger system, based on multiple types of custom processing boards equipped with Xilinx Ultrascale+ Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), will exploit fine grained information from the detector subsystems (calorimeter, muon systems and the silicon-strip tracker). The final stage of the Level-1 Trigger, the Phase-2 Global Trigger (P2GT), will receive more than 20 different trigger object collections from upstream systems and will be able to evaluate about 1000 cut-based and machine learning algorithms distributed over up to twelve boards. The P2GT is designed as a modular system with an easily re-configurable firmware, designed to meet the demand of high flexibility required for adapting trigger strategies during operation of the HL-LHC. The algorithms are kept highly configurable and tools are provided to allow their study, verification, and emulation from within the CMS offline software framework (CMSSW) without the need for knowledge of the underlying firmware implementation. A tool has been developed that converts the Python-based configuration used by CMSSW into VHDL for use in the hardware trigger. A prototype firmware for a single Global Trigger board has been developed, which includes de-multiplexing logic, conversion to an internal common object format and distribution of the data over the FPGA. In this framework, 197 algorithms are implemented at a clock speed of 480 MHz. The prototype has been thoroughly tested and verified using the CMSSW emulator. The P2GT is presented with the novel integration within CMSSW and streamlined translation into VHDL code

    Adaptability and efficiency of the CMS Level-1 Global Trigger firmware implementation for Phase-2

    No full text
    We present details on the new Level-1 Global Trigger at CMS for the upcoming high-luminosity operation of the LHC. Our focus is on the newly developed firmware, which employs a bottom-up generic approach to enhance menu adaptability and accommodate the increase in upstream data. We also highlight our efficient pipelining strategy that ensures excellent routability at 480 MHz. Furthermore, we discuss the firmware implementation for three prototypes targeting Serenity boards, together with their current and future testing and validation endeavours

    Architecture and Prototype of the CMS Global Level-1 Trigger for Phase-2

    No full text
    We present the architecture and current state of prototype firmware of the CMS Level-1 Global Trigger, the final stage of the new Level-1 trigger for Phase-2 of the operation of the LHC. Based on high-precision inputs from the muon, calorimeter, track and particle flow triggers, the Global Trigger evaluates O(1000) cut-based and neural-net-based algorithms in a system of up to thirteen Xilinx Ultrascale Plus based ATCA processing boards interconnected by 25 Gb/s optical links. In order to optimize the usage of resource, the main algorithms, including the DSP-based calculation of invariant masses, are implemented at 480 MHz

    CMS Phase-2 DAQ and Timing Hub -- Prototyping results and perspectives

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    This paper describes recent progress on the design of the DAQ and Timing Hub, or DTH, an ATCA hub board intended for the Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS experiment. Prototyping was originally divided into multiple feature lines, spanning all different aspects of the DTH functionality. The second DTH prototype merges all R and D and development lines into a single board, which is intended to be the production candidate. Emphasis is on the process and experience in going from the first to the second DTH prototype, which included a change of the chosen FPGA as well as the integration of a commercial networking solution

    A pathophysiological framework of hippocampal dysfunction in ageing and disease

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    The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from Alzheimer's disease and cognitive ageing to schizophrenia and depression. How can the hippocampal formation, a complex circuit that spans the temporal lobes, be involved in a range of such phenotypically diverse and mechanistically distinct disorders? Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that these disorders differentially target distinct subregions of the hippocampal circuit. In addition, some disorders are associated with hippocampal hypometabolism, whereas others show evidence of hypermetabolism. Interpreted in the context of the functional and molecular organization of the hippocampal circuit, these observations give rise to a unified pathophysiological framework of hippocampal dysfunction

    ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC ADVERSE EFFECTS OF NON-HORMONAL AND NON-METABOLIC DRUGS

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    Measurement of the double-differential inclusive jet cross section in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 5.02 TeV

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    International audienceThe inclusive jet cross section is measured as a function of jet transverse momentum pTp_\mathrm{T} and rapidity yy. The measurement is performed using proton-proton collision data at s\sqrt{s} = 5.02 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 27.4 pb‚ąí1^{-1}. The jets are reconstructed with the anti-kTk_\mathrm{T} algorithm using a distance parameter of RR = 0.4, within the rapidity interval ‚ą£y‚ą£\lvert y\rvert<\lt 2, and across the kinematic range 0.06 <\ltpTp_\mathrm{T}<\lt 1 TeV. The jet cross section is unfolded from detector to particle level using the determined jet response and resolution. The results are compared to predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, calculated at both next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order. The predictions are corrected for nonperturbative effects, and presented for a variety of parton distribution functions and choices of the renormalization/factorization scales and the strong coupling őĪS\alpha_\mathrm{S}
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