29 research outputs found

    High-angular resolution observations of methanol in the infrared dark cloud core G11.11-0.12P1

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    Recent studies suggest that infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) have the potential of harboring the earliest stages of massive star formation and indeed evidence for this is found toward distinct regions within them. We present a study with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of a core in the archetypal filamentary IRDC G11.11-0.12 at few arcsecond resolution to determine its physical and chemical structure. The data consist of continuum and line observations covering the C34S 2-1 line and the methanol 2_k-1_k v_t=0 lines at 3mm and the methanol 5_k-4_k v_t =0 lines at 1mm. Our observations show extended emission in the continuum at 1 and 3 mm. The methanol 2_k-1_k v_t=0 emission presents three maxima extending over 1 pc scale (when merged with single-dish short-spacing observations); one of the maxima is spatially coincident with the continuum emission. The fitting results show enhanced methanol fractional abundance (~3x10^-8) at the central peak with respect to the other two peaks, where it decreases by about an order of magnitude (~4-6x10^-9). Evidence of extended 4.5 microns emission, "wings" in the CH3OH 2_k-1_k spectra, and CH3OH abundance enhancement point to the presence of an outflow in the East-West direction. In addition, we find a gradient of ~4 km/s in the same direction, which we interpret as being produced by an outflow(s)-cloud interaction.Comment: Accepted for publication to A&

    A caccia nel buio - Escape room scientifica a tema astrofisico

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    In questo report viene descritta l'attività "A caccia nel buio", una escape room didattica a tema astrofisico sviluppata nell'ambito del progetto SAuSaGE (Heritage of the current revolution in star formation: the Star-forming filAmentary Structures in our Galaxy; PI Silvia Leurini, INAF-OAC). A caccia nel buio si propone di sviluppare il tema scientifico della formazione stellare e planetaria attraverso un'attività di gamification nota come Escape Room: un gioco di logica di gruppo basato su una sequenza di enigmi da risolvere. L'attività proposta è rivolta a studenti della scuola secondaria di primo grado, ma può facilmente essere esportata per studenti di fascia d'età più grande. Dopo una fase iniziale di play test, volta a strutturare meglio le stazioni dell'escape, a migliorare le prove logiche e a capire eventuali limiti concettuali, l'attività verrà inserita nelle proposte didattiche dell'INAF-OAC verso le scuole e proposta in contesti non scolastici quali i festival scientifici

    Fast deuterium fractionation in magnetized and turbulent filaments

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    Deuterium fractionation is considered as an important process to infer the chemical ages of prestellar cores in filaments. We present here the first magneto-hydrodynamical simulations including a chemical network to study deuterium fractionation in magnetized and turbulent filaments and their substructures. The filaments typically show widespread deuterium fractionation with average values ≳0.01\gtrsim0.01. For individual cores of similar age, we observe the deuteration fraction to increase with time, but also to be independent of their average properties such as density, virial or mass-to-magnetic flux ratio. We further find a correlation of the deuteration fraction with core mass, average H2_2 density and virial parameter only at late evolutionary stages of the filament and attribute this to the lifetime of the individual cores. Specifically, chemically old cores reveal higher deuteration fractions. Within the radial profiles of selected cores, we notice differences in the structure of the deuteration fraction or surface density, which we can attribute to their different turbulent properties. High deuteration fractions of the order 0.01−0.10.01-0.1 may be reached within approximately 200200~kyrs, corresponding to two free-fall times, as defined for cylindrical systems, of the filamentsComment: submitted to MNRAS. Comments welcom

    Massive and low-mass protostars in massive "starless" cores

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    The infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) G11.11−-0.12 and G28.34++0.06 are two of the best-studied IRDCs in our Galaxy. These two clouds host clumps at different stages of evolution, including a massive dense clump in both clouds that is dark even at 70 and 100μ\mum. Such seemingly quiescent massive dense clumps have been speculated to harbor cores that are precursors of high-mass stars and clusters. We observed these two "prestellar" regions at 1mm with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) with the aim of characterizing the nature of such cores. We show that the clumps fragment into several low- to high-mass cores within the filamentary structure of the enveloping cloud. However, while the overall physical properties of the clump may indicate a starless phase, we find that both regions host multiple outflows. The most massive core though 70 μ\mum dark in both clumps is clearly associated with compact outflows. Such low-luminosity, massive cores are potentially the earliest stage in the evolution of a massive protostar. We also identify several outflow features distributed in the large environment around the most massive core. We infer that these outflows are being powered by young, low-mass protostars whose core mass is below our detection limit. These findings suggest that low-mass protostars have already formed or are coevally formed at the earliest phase of high-mass star formation.Comment: in print at A&

    Synergy of multifrequency studies from observations of NGC6334I

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    We combine multifrequency observations from the millimeter to near infrared wavelengths that demonstrate the spatial distributions of H2, CO, and NH3 emission, which are all manifestations of various shocks driven by outflows of deeply embedded sources in NGC6334I. In addition to the well-known northeast-southwest outflow we detect at least one more outflow in the region by combining observations from APEX, ATCA, SMA, Spitzer and VLT/ISAAC. Potential driving sources will be discussed. NGC6334I exhibits several signs of active star formation and will be a major target for future observatories such as Herschel and ALMA.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, appeared in the proceedings of the workshop 'The Universe Under The Microscope - Astrophysics At High Angular Resolution', see http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/131/

    Impacts of pure shocks in the BHR71 bipolar outflow

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    During the formation of a star, material is ejected along powerful jets that impact the ambient material. This outflow regulates star formation by e.g. inducing turbulence and heating the surrounding gas. Understanding the associated shocks is therefore essential to the study of star formation. We present comparisons of shock models with CO, H2, and SiO observations in a 'pure' shock position in the BHR71 bipolar outflow. These comparisons provide an insight into the shock and pre-shock characteristics, and allow us to understand the energetic and chemical feedback of star formation on Galactic scales. New CO (Jup = 16, 11, 7, 6, 4, 3) observations from the shocked regions with the SOFIA and APEX telescopes are presented and combined with earlier H2 and SiO data (from the Spitzer and APEX telescopes). The integrated intensities are compared to a grid of models that were obtained from a magneto-hydrodynamical shock code which calculates the dynamical and chemical structure of these regions combined with a radiative transfer module based on the 'large velocity gradient' approximation. The CO emission leads us to update the conclusions of our previous shock analysis: pre-shock densities of 1e4 cm-3 and shock velocities around 20-25 km s-1 are still constrained, but older ages are inferred ( 4000 years). We evaluate the contribution of shocks to the excitation of CO around forming stars. The SiO observations are compatible with a scenario where less than 4% of the pre-shock SiO belongs to the grain mantles. We infer outflow parameters: a mass of 1.8x1e-2 Msun was measured in our beam, in which a momentum of 0.4 Msun km s-1 is dissipated, for an energy of 4.2x1e43erg. We analyse the energetics of the outflow species by species. Comparing our results with previous studies highlights their dependence on the method: H2 observations only are not sufficient to evaluate the mass of outflows.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures, 4 Tables, accepted in A&

    One, Two, Three ... An Explosive Outflow in IRAS 12326−-6245 revealed by ALMA

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    In the last years there has been a substantial increase in the number of the reported massive and luminous star-forming regions with related explosive outflows thanks to the superb sensitivity and angular resolution provided by the new radio, infrared, and optical facilities. Here, we report one more explosive outflow related with the massive and bright star-forming region IRAS 12326−-6245 using Band 6 sensitive and high angular resolution (∼\sim0.2"") Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We find over 10 molecular and collimated well-defined streamers, with Hubble-Lemaitre like expansion motions, and pointing right to the center of a dusty and molecular shell (reported for the first time here) localized in the northern part of the UCHII region known as G301.1A. The estimated kinematic age, and energy for the explosion are ∼\sim700 yrs, and 1048^{48} erg, respectively. Taking into account the recently reported explosive outflows together with IRAS 12326−-6245, we estimate an event rate of once every 90 yr in our Galaxy, similar to the formation rate of massive stars.Comment: Accepted to The Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Extremely large and hot multilayer Keplerian disk around the O-type protostar W51N: The precursors of the HCHII regions?

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    We present sensitive high angular resolution (0.57′′''-0.78′′'') SO, SO2_2, CO, C2_2H5_5OH, HC3_3N, and HCOCH2_2OH line observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of the young O-type protostar W51 North made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We report the presence of a large (of about 8000 AU) and hot molecular circumstellar disk around this object, which connects the inner dusty disk with the molecular ring or toroid reported recently, and confirms the existence of a single bipolar outflow emanating from this object. The molecular emission from the large disk is observed in layers with the transitions characterized by high excitation temperatures in their lower energy states (up to 1512 K) being concentrated closer to the central massive protostar. The molecular emission from those transitions with low or moderate excitation temperatures are found in the outermost parts of the disk and exhibits an inner cavity with an angular size of around 0.7′′''. We modeled all lines with a Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra. A detail study of the kinematics of the molecular gas together with a LTE model of a circumstellar disk shows that the innermost parts of the disk are also Keplerian plus a contracting velocity. The emission of the HCOCH2_2OH reveals the possible presence of a warm ``companion'' located to the northeast of the disk, however its nature is unclear. The emission of the SO and SO2_2 is observed in the circumstellar disk as well as in the outflow. We suggest that the massive protostar W51 North appears to be in a phase before the presence of a Hypercompact or an Ultracompact HII (HC/UCHII) region, and propose a possible sequence on the formation of the massive stars.Comment: Accepted to Ap

    APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects: IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback

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    During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the APEX (12CO and 13CO 6-5), and the HARP-B instrument on the JCMT (12CO and 13CO 3-2). Maps are used to determine outflow parameters and envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. All sources in our sample show outflow activity and the outflow force, F_CO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater distances than the power-law envelope and therefore influences the surrounding cloud material directly. Comparison of the CO 6-5 results with Herschel-HIFI H2O and PACS high-J CO lines, both tracing currently shocked gas, shows that the two components are linked, even though the transitions do not probe the same gas. The link does not extend down to CO 3-2. The conclusion is that CO 6-5 depends on the shock characteristics (density and velocity), whereas CO 3-2 is more sensitive to conditions in the surrounding environment (density). The radiative feedback is responsible for increasing the gas temperature by a factor of two, up to 30-50 K, on scales of a few thousand AU, particularly along the direction of the outflow. The mass of the UV heated gas exceeds the mass contained in the entrained outflow in the inner ~3000 AU and is therefore at least as important on small scales.Comment: 30 pages with Appendix, Accepted by Astronomy & Astrophysic
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