19 research outputs found

    WCF processing in the L2 curriculum: A look at type of WCF, type of linguistic item, and L2 performance

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    Whether type of written corrective feedback (WCF) impacts L2 learning has been investigated for decades. While many product-oriented studies report conflicting findings, the paucity of studies adopting both a process-oriented and curricular approach (e.g., Caras, 2019) underscores the call for further research on: a) the processing dimension of L2 writers’ engagement with WCF in this instructed setting (ManchĂ³n & Leow, 2020), b) from an ISLA applied perspective (Leow, 2019a; Leow & ManchĂ³n, 2022), and c) any potential relationship with subsequent performances. Also, whether type of linguistic item (e.g., morphological vs. syntactic) plays a role in the processing dimension also warrants further probing. This preliminary quasi-experimental study explored the cognitive processes of 10 adult L2 writers with minimal previous exposure to Spanish interacting with WCF (both direct and metalinguistic) on morphological and syntactic errors. Think aloud data gathered from three compositions written within the natural writing conditions of a foreign language curriculum were transcribed, coded for depth of processing (DoP) (Leow, 2015), and correlated with subsequent performances on the target items. The results revealed: 1) a higher DoP for metalinguistic WCF, 2) differences in processing of linguistic items, 3) similar DoP over time, and 4) a beneficial relationship between DoP and subsequent performances. Recommendations for future research underscore the importance of acknowledging variables within the instructed setting that may impact a pure effect of WCF on L2 development

    Robust estimation of bacterial cell count from optical density

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    Optical density (OD) is widely used to estimate the density of cells in liquid culture, but cannot be compared between instruments without a standardized calibration protocol and is challenging to relate to actual cell count. We address this with an interlaboratory study comparing three simple, low-cost, and highly accessible OD calibration protocols across 244 laboratories, applied to eight strains of constitutive GFP-expressing E. coli. Based on our results, we recommend calibrating OD to estimated cell count using serial dilution of silica microspheres, which produces highly precise calibration (95.5% of residuals <1.2-fold), is easily assessed for quality control, also assesses instrument effective linear range, and can be combined with fluorescence calibration to obtain units of Molecules of Equivalent Fluorescein (MEFL) per cell, allowing direct comparison and data fusion with flow cytometry measurements: in our study, fluorescence per cell measurements showed only a 1.07-fold mean difference between plate reader and flow cytometry data

    Association between mutations or CNV and OS.

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    <p>A: PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway; B: Gene expression level analysis whithin the PI3KCA/AKT pathway; C: Heat map: mutations across the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway; D: Association between PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway mutations or CNV and OS.</p

    Association of CNV of genes In TP53, RTK/RAS/RAF, PI3KCA/AKT/mTOR, WNT/CTNNB1 and RB1 pathways with OS.

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    <p>Note: CDK4 and CDN2A were not analyzed due to small number of patients with copy number variation.</p><p>Association of CNV of genes In TP53, RTK/RAS/RAF, PI3KCA/AKT/mTOR, WNT/CTNNB1 and RB1 pathways with OS.</p