9,188 research outputs found

    Intravitreal injection of Ozurdex(®) implant in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema, with six-month follow-up

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    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone injections in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: A 700 μg slow-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreal cavity of 17 patients (19 eyes) affected with persistent DME. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed through Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. BCVA and CMT examinations were carried out at baseline (T0) and repeated after three days, one month (T1), three months (T3), four months (T4), and six months (T6) post injection. RESULTS: Dexamethasone implant induced an improvement in ETDRS at T1, T3, T4, and T6 post injection. CMT was reduced at T1, T3, and T4, while at T6, CMT values were not statistically different from baseline. No complications were observed during the follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that dexamethasone implant is effective in reducing DME symptoms within a six-month frame

    P 06.21: Extra cardiac malformations associated with hypoplastic left and right ventricle

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/108595/1/uog14115.pd

    Bisphenol A and phthalates in diet: an emerging link with pregnancy complications

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    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that are able to interfere with hormone action, likely contributing to the development of several endocrine and metabolic diseases. Among them, Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates contaminate food and water and have been largely studied as obesogenic agents. They might contribute to weight gain, insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in pregnancy, potentially playing a role in the development of pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and adverse outcomes. Pregnancy and childhood are sensitive windows of susceptibility, and, although with not univocal results, preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that exposure to BPA and phthalates at these stages of life might have an impact on the development of metabolic diseases even many years later. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association are largely unknown, but adipocyte and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction are suspected to be involved. Remarkably, transgenerational damage has been observed, which might be explained by epigenetic changes. Further research is needed to address knowledge gaps and to provide preventive measure to limit health risks connected with exposure to EDCs

    The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil decreases the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8 in diabetic cardiomyopathy: in vivo and in vitro evidence

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    Purpose: Interleukin (IL)-8 is a proinflammatory C-X-C chemokine involved in inflammation underling cardiac diseases, primary or in comorbid condition, such diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil can ameliorate cardiac conditions by counteracting inflammation. The study aim is to evaluate the effect of sildenafil on serum IL-8 in DCM subjects vs. placebo, and on IL-8 release in human endothelial cells (Hfaec) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) under inflammatory stimuli. Methods: IL-8 was quantified: in sera of (30) DCM subjects before (baseline) and after sildenafil (100 mg/day, 3-months) vs. (16) placebo and (15) healthy subjects, by multiplatform array; in supernatants from inflammation-challenged cells after sildenafil (1 ÂµM), by ELISA. Results: Baseline IL-8 was higher in DCM vs. healthy subjects (149.14 ± 46.89 vs. 16.17 ± 5.38 pg/ml, p < 0.01). Sildenafil, not placebo, significantly reduced serum IL-8 (23.7 ± 5.9 pg/ml, p < 0.05 vs. baseline). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for IL-8 was 0.945 (95% confidence interval of 0.772 to 1.0, p < 0.01), showing good capacity of discriminating the response in terms of drug-induced IL-8 decrease (sensitivity of 0.93, specificity of 0.90). Sildenafil significantly decreased IL-8 protein release by inflammation-induced Hfaec and PBMC and downregulated IL-8 mRNA in PBMC, without affecting cell number or PDE5 expression. Conclusion: Sildenafil might be suggested as potential novel pharmacological tool to control DCM progression through IL-8 targeting at systemic and cellular level

    Equivalence among different formalisms in the Tsallis entropy framework

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    In a recent paper [Phys. Lett. A {\bf335}, 351 (2005)] the authors discussed the equivalence among the various probability distribution functions of a system in equilibrium in the Tsallis entropy framework. In the present letter we extend these results to a system which is out of equilibrium and evolves to a stationary state according to a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. By means of time-scale conversion, it is shown that there exists a ``correspondence'' among the self-similar solutions of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations associated with the different Tsallis formalisms. The time-scale conversion is related to the corresponding Lyapunov functions of the respective nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations.Comment: 20 pages, 1 figure, Elsart macro style, version accepted on Physica
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