331 research outputs found

    Stigmatisation and resilience in inflammatory bowel disease

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    © 2019, The Author(s). Inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is an immune-mediated, chronic relapsing disorder characterised by severe gastrointestinal symptoms that dramatically impair patients’ quality of life, affecting psychological, physical, sexual, and social functions. As a consequence, patients suffering from this condition may perceive social stigmatisation, which is the identification of negative attributes that distinguish a person as different and worthy of separation from the group. Stigmatisation has been widely studied in different chronic conditions, especially in mental illnesses and HIV-infected patients. There is a growing interest also for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, in which the possibility of disease flare and surgery-related issues seem to be the most important factors determining stigmatisation. Conversely, resilience represents the quality that allows one to adopt a positive attitude and good adjustments despite adverse life events. Likewise, resilience has been studied in different populations, age groups, and chronic conditions, especially mental illnesses and cancer, but little is known about this issue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, even if this could be an interesting area of research. Resilience can be strengthened through dedicated interventions that could potentially improve the ability to cope with the disease. In this paper, we focus on the current knowledge of stigmatisation and resilience in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Validation of the Italian translation of the perceived stigma scale and resilience assessment in inflammatory bowel disease patients

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    BACKGROUND Stigmatization is the separation of an individual from a group due to aspects that make them different. Resilience may in turn influence the perception of stigma. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to stigma, although data are very limited. AIM To validate an Italian translation of the IBD perceived stigma scale (PSS) in relation to patients’ resilience. METHODS Consecutive IBD outpatients were prospectively enrolled (December 2018-September 2019) in an Italian, tertiary referral, IBD center. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Stigma and resilience were evaluated through the IBD-PSS and the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, respectively. The International Quality of Life Assessment Project approach was followed to translate the IBD-PSS into Italian and to establish data quality. Higher scores represent greater perceived stigma and resilience. Multivariable analysis for factors associated with greater stigma was computed. RESULTS Overall, 126 IBD patients (mean age 46.1 ± 16.9) were enrolled. The International Quality of Life Assessment criteria for acceptable psychometric properties of the scale were satisfied, with optimal data completeness. There was no ceiling effect, whilst floor effect was present (7.1%). The discriminant validity and the internal consistency reliability were good (Cronbach alpha = 0.87). The overall internal consistency was 95%, and the test-retest reliability was excellent 0.996. The median PSS score was 0.45 (0.20-0.85). Resilience negatively correlated with perceived stigma (Spearman’s correlation = -0.18, 95% confidence intervals: -0.42-0.08, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION We herein validated the Italian translation of the PSS scale, also demonstrating that resilience negatively impacts perceived stigma

    Personalize, participate, predict, and prevent: 4Ps in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a complex, immune-mediated, disorder which leads to several gastrointestinal and systemic manifestations determining a poor quality of life, disability, and other negative health outcomes. Our knowledge of this condition has greatly improved over the last few decades, and a comprehensive management should take into account both biological (i.e., disease-related, patient-related) and non-biological (i.e., socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, behavioral) factors which contribute to the disease phenotype. From this point of view, the so called 4P medicine framework, including personalization, prediction, prevention, and participation could be useful for tailoring ad hoc interventions in IBD patients. In this review, we discuss the cutting-edge issues regarding personalization in special settings (i.e., pregnancy, oncology, infectious diseases), patient participation (i.e., how to communicate, disability, tackling stigma and resilience, quality of care), disease prediction (i.e., faecal markers, response to treatments), and prevention (i.e., dysplasia through endoscopy, infections through vaccinations, and post-surgical recurrence). Finally, we provide an outlook discussing the unmet needs for implementing this conceptual framework in clinical practice

    A propensity score-matched, real-world comparison of ustekinumab vs vedolizumab as a second-line treatment for Crohn's disease. The Cross Pennine study II

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    BackgroundThe optimal choice of biological agents after failure of anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-(TNF)ι agent in Crohn's disease (CD) is yet to be defined.AimsTo assess the effectiveness and safety of ustekinumab compared to vedolizumab as second-line treatment in CD patients who failed anti-TNFι therapy.MethodsRetrospective analysis of clinical response and remission at 14 and 52 weeks to ustekinumab by physician global assessment (PGA). A propensity score-matched analysis with a cohort treated with vedolizumab was performed.ResultsOf 282 patients (mean age 40 ¹ 15, F:M ratio 1.7:1) treated with ustekinumab, clinical response or remission was reached by 200/282 patients (70.9%) at 14 weeks, and 162/259 patients (62.5%) at 52 weeks. Overall, 74 adverse events occurred, of which 26 were labelled as serious (8.3 per 100 person-year). After exclusion of patients without prior anti-TNFι exposure and patients previously exposed to vedolizumab or ustekinumab, we analysed 275/282 patients (97.5%) on ustekinumab and 118/135 patients (87.4%) on vedolizumab. Propensity score analysis revealed that at 14 weeks, patients treated with ustekinumab were 38% (95% CI 25%-50%; P ConclusionsUstekinumab was effective and well tolerated in this real-world cohort. While ustekinumab proved more effective at 14-weeks, we found no statistically significant differences at 52 weeks compared to vedolizumab

    Search for heavy neutral lepton production in K+ decays

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    A search for heavy neutral lepton production in K + decays using a data sample collected with a minimum bias trigger by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2015 is reported. Upper limits at the 10−7 to 10−6 level are established on the elements of the extended neutrino mixing matrix |Ue4| 2 and |Uμ4| 2 for heavy neutral lepton mass in the ranges 170–448 MeV/c2 and 250–373 MeV/c2, respectively. This improves on the previous limits from HNL production searches over the whole mass range considered for |Ue4|2 and above 300 MeV/c2 for |Uμ4|2

    Beta-Blocker Use in Older Hospitalized Patients Affected by Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Italian Survey From the REPOSI Register

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    Beta (β)-blockers (BB) are useful in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, the use of BBs could induce bronchoconstriction due to β2-blockade. For this reason, both the ESC and GOLD guidelines strongly suggest the use of selective β1-BB in patients with HF and COPD. However, low adherence to guidelines was observed in multiple clinical settings. The aim of the study was to investigate the BBs use in older patients affected by HF and COPD, recorded in the REPOSI register. Of 942 patients affected by HF, 47.1% were treated with BBs. The use of BBs was significantly lower in patients with HF and COPD than in patients affected by HF alone, both at admission and at discharge (admission, 36.9% vs. 51.3%; discharge, 38.0% vs. 51.7%). In addition, no further BB users were found at discharge. The probability to being treated with a BB was significantly lower in patients with HF also affected by COPD (adj. OR, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.37-0.67), while the diagnosis of COPD was not associated with the choice of selective β1-BB (adj. OR, 95% CI: 1.33, 0.76-2.34). Despite clear recommendations by clinical guidelines, a significant underuse of BBs was also observed after hospital discharge. In COPD affected patients, physicians unreasonably reject BBs use, rather than choosing a β1-BB. The expected improvement of the BB prescriptions after hospitalization was not observed. A multidisciplinary approach among hospital physicians, general practitioners, and pharmacologists should be carried out for better drug management and adherence to guideline recommendations

    The “Diabetes Comorbidome”: A Different Way for Health Professionals to Approach the Comorbidity Burden of Diabetes

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    (1) Background: The disease burden related to diabetes is increasing greatly, particularly in older subjects. A more comprehensive approach towards the assessment and management of diabetes’ comorbidities is necessary. The aim of this study was to implement our previous data identifying and representing the prevalence of the comorbidities, their association with mortality, and the strength of their relationship in hospitalized elderly patients with diabetes, developing, at the same time, a new graphic representation model of the comorbidome called “Diabetes Comorbidome”. (2) Methods: Data were collected from the RePoSi register. Comorbidities, socio-demographic data, severity and comorbidity indexes (Cumulative Illness rating Scale CIRS-SI and CIRS-CI), and functional status (Barthel Index), were recorded. Mortality rates were assessed in hospital and 3 and 12 months after discharge. (3) Results: Of the 4714 hospitalized elderly patients, 1378 had diabetes. The comorbidities distribution showed that arterial hypertension (57.1%), ischemic heart disease (31.4%), chronic renal failure (28.8%), atrial fibrillation (25.6%), and COPD (22.7%), were the more frequent in subjects with diabetes. The graphic comorbidome showed that the strongest predictors of death at in hospital and at the 3-month follow-up were dementia and cancer. At the 1-year follow-up, cancer was the first comorbidity independently associated with mortality. (4) Conclusions: The “Diabetes Comorbidome” represents the perfect instrument for determining the prevalence of comorbidities and the strength of their relationship with risk of death, as well as the need for an effective treatment for improving clinical outcomes

    Clinical features and outcomes of elderly hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or both

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    Background and objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) mutually increase the risk of being present in the same patient, especially if older. Whether or not this coexistence may be associated with a worse prognosis is debated. Therefore, employing data derived from the REPOSI register, we evaluated the clinical features and outcomes in a population of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine wards and having COPD, HF or COPD + HF. Methods: We measured socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, severity and prevalence of comorbidities, clinical and laboratory features during hospitalization, mood disorders, functional independence, drug prescriptions and discharge destination. The primary study outcome was the risk of death. Results: We considered 2,343 elderly hospitalized patients (median age 81 years), of whom 1,154 (49%) had COPD, 813 (35%) HF, and 376 (16%) COPD + HF. Patients with COPD + HF had different characteristics than those with COPD or HF, such as a higher prevalence of previous hospitalizations, comorbidities (especially chronic kidney disease), higher respiratory rate at admission and number of prescribed drugs. Patients with COPD + HF (hazard ratio HR 1.74, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.16-2.61) and patients with dementia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06-2.90) had a higher risk of death at one year. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a higher mortality risk in the group of patients with COPD + HF for all causes (p = 0.010), respiratory causes (p = 0.006), cardiovascular causes (p = 0.046) and respiratory plus cardiovascular causes (p = 0.009). Conclusion: In this real-life cohort of hospitalized elderly patients, the coexistence of COPD and HF significantly worsened prognosis at one year. This finding may help to better define the care needs of this population

    Antidiabetic Drug Prescription Pattern in Hospitalized Older Patients with Diabetes

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    Objective: To describe the prescription pattern of antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs in a cohort of hospitalized older patients with diabetes. Methods: Patients with diabetes aged 65 years or older hospitalized in internal medicine and/or geriatric wards throughout Italy and enrolled in the REPOSI (REgistro POliterapuie SIMI—Società Italiana di Medicina Interna) registry from 2010 to 2019 and discharged alive were included. Results: Among 1703 patients with diabetes, 1433 (84.2%) were on treatment with at least one antidiabetic drug at hospital admission, mainly prescribed as monotherapy with insulin (28.3%) or metformin (19.2%). The proportion of treated patients decreased at discharge (N = 1309, 76.9%), with a significant reduction over time. Among those prescribed, the proportion of those with insulin alone increased over time (p = 0.0066), while the proportion of those prescribed sulfonylureas decreased (p < 0.0001). Among patients receiving antidiabetic therapy at discharge, 1063 (81.2%) were also prescribed cardiovascular drugs, mainly with an antihypertensive drug alone or in combination (N = 777, 73.1%). Conclusion: The management of older patients with diabetes in a hospital setting is often sub-optimal, as shown by the increasing trend in insulin at discharge, even if an overall improvement has been highlighted by the prevalent decrease in sulfonylureas prescription
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