7,450 research outputs found

    A New Redshift Interpretation

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    A nonhomogeneous universe with vacuum energy, but without spacetime expansion, is utilized together with gravitational and Doppler redshifts as the basis for proposing a new interpretation of the Hubble relation and the 2.7K Cosmic Blackbody Radiation.Comment: 9 pages LaTeX, no figure

    Self-gravitating spheres of anisotropic fluid in geodesic flow

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    The fluid models mentioned in the title are classified. All characteristics of the fluid are expressed through a master potential, satisfying an ordinary second order differential equation. Different constraints are imposed on this core of relations, finding new solutions and deriving the classical results for perfect fluids and dust as particular cases. Many uncharged and charged anisotropic solutions, all conformally flat and some uniform density solutions are found. A number of solutions with linear equation among the two pressures are derived, including the case of vanishing tangential pressure.Comment: 21 page

    Hole-LO phonon interaction in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

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    We investigate the valence intraband transitions in p-doped self-assembled InAs quantum dots using far-infrared magneto-optical technique with polarized radiation. We show that a purely electronic model is unable to account for the experimental data. We calculate the coupling between the mixed hole LO-phonon states using the Fr\"ohlich Hamiltonian, from which we determine the polaron states as well as the energies and oscillator strengths of the valence intraband transitions. The good agreement between the experiments and calculations provides strong evidence for the existence of hole-polarons and demonstrates that the intraband magneto-optical transitions occur between polaron states

    Nonadiabatic charged spherical evolution in the postquasistatic approximation

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    We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of dissipative and electrically charged distributions in General Relativity. We evolve nonadiabatic distributions assuming an equation of state that accounts for the anisotropy induced by the electric charge. Dissipation is described by streaming out or diffusion approximations. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya-Reissner-Nordstr\"om exterior solution. Two models are considered: i) a Schwarzschild-like shell in the diffusion limit; ii) a Schwarzschild-like interior in the free streaming limit. These toy models tell us something about the nature of the dissipative and electrically charged collapse. Diffusion stabilizes the gravitational collapse producing a spherical shell whose contraction is halted in a short characteristic hydrodynamic time. The streaming out radiation provides a more efficient mechanism for emission of energy, redistributing the electric charge on the whole sphere, while the distribution collapses indefinitely with a longer hydrodynamic time scale.Comment: 11 pages, 16 Figures. Accepted for publication in Phys Rev

    High energy photon interactions at the LHC

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    Experimental prospects for studying high-energy photon-photon and photon-proton interactions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are discussed. Cross sections are calculated for many electroweak and beyond the Standard Model processes. Selection strategies based on photon interaction tagging techniques are studied. Assuming a typical LHC multipurpose detector, various signals and their irreducible backgrounds are presented after applying acceptance cuts. Prospects are discussed for the Higgs boson search, detection of supersymmetric particles and of anomalous quartic gauge couplings, as well as for the top quark physics.Comment: 17 pages, 16 tables and 14 figure

    Non-Gaussian displacement distributions in models of heterogeneous active particle dynamics

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    We study the effect of randomly distributed diffusivities and speeds in two models for active particle dynamics with active and passive fluctuations. We demonstrate how non-Gaussian displacement distributions emerge in these models in the long time limit, including Cauchy-type and exponential (Laplace) shapes. Notably the resulting shapes of the displacement distributions with distributed diffusivities for the active models considered here are in striking contrast to passive diffusion models. For the active motion models our discussion points out the differences between active- and passive-noise. Specifically, we demonstrate that the case with active-noise is in nice agreement with measured data for the displacement distribution of social amoeba.Comment: 28 pages, 8 figures, IOP LaTe

    Interpretations of the Accelerating Universe

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    It is generally argued that the present cosmological observations support the accelerating models of the universe, as driven by the cosmological constant or `dark energy'. We argue here that an alternative model of the universe is possible which explains the current observations of the universe. We demonstrate this with a reinterpretation of the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, since this was the test that gave a spurt to the current trend in favour of the cosmological constant.Comment: 12 pages including 2 figures, minor revision, references added, a paragraph on the interpretation of the CMB anisotropy in the QSSC added in conclusion, general results unchanged. To appear in the October 2002 issue of the "Publications of the Astronmical Society of the Pacific

    Bistability of the Nuclear Polarisation created through optical pumping in InGaAs Quantum Dots

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    We show that optical pumping of electron spins in individual InGaAs quantum dots leads to strong nuclear polarisation that we measure via the Overhauser shift (OHS) in magneto-photoluminescence experiments between 0 and 4T. We find a strongly non-monotonous dependence of the OHS on the applied magnetic field, with a maximum nuclear polarisation of 40% for intermediate magnetic fields. We observe that the OHS is larger for nuclear fields anti-parallel to the external field than in the parallel configuration. A bistability in the dependence of the OHS on the spin polarization of the optically injected electrons is found. All our findings are qualitatively understood with a model based on a simple perturbative approach.Comment: Phys Rev B (in press
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