5,737 research outputs found

    Ground state properties of a one-dimensional strongly-interacting Bose-Fermi mixture in a double-well potential

    Get PDF
    We calculate the reduced single-particle density matrix (RSPDM), momentum distributions, natural orbitals and their occupancies, for a strongly interacting one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixture in a double-well potential with a large central barrier. For mesoscopic systems, we find that the ground state properties qualitatively differ for mixtures with even number of particles (both odd-odd and even-even mixtures) in comparison to mixtures with odd particle numbers (odd-even and even-odd mixtures). For even mixtures the momentum distribution is smooth, whereas the momentum distribution of odd mixtures possesses distinct modulations; the differences are observed also in the off-diagonal correlations of the RSPDM, and in the occupancies of natural orbitals. The calculation is based on a derived formula which enables efficient calculation of the RSPDM for mesoscopic mixtures in various potentials.Comment: 10 figure

    Laser assisted tunneling in a Tonks-Girardeau gas

    Full text link
    We investigate the applicability of laser assisted tunneling in a strongly interacting one-dimensional Bose gas (the Tonks-Girardeau gas) in optical lattices. We find that the stroboscopic dynamics of the Tonks-Girardeau gas in a continuous Wannier-Stark-ladder potential, supplemented with laser assisted tunneling, effectively realizes the ground state of one-dimensional hard-core bosons in a discrete lattice with nontrivial hopping phases. We compare observables that are affected by the interactions, such as the momentum distribution, natural orbitals and their occupancies, in the time-dependent continuous system, to those of the ground state of the discrete system. Stroboscopically, we find an excellent agreement, indicating that laser assisted tunneling is a viable technique for realizing novel ground states and phases with hard-core one-dimensional Bose gases.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figure

    Calorimeter Clustering Algorithms: Description and Performance

    Get PDF
    This note describes the performance of the calorimeter clustering algorithms used for ATLAS, and which provide inputs for particle identification. ATLAS uses two principal algorithms. The first is the ``sliding-window'' algorithm, which clusters calorimeter cells within fixed-size rectangles; results from this are used for electron, photon, and tau lepton identification. The second is the ``topological'' algorithm, which clusters together neighboring cells, as long as the signal in the cells is significant compared to noise. The results of this second algorithm are further used for jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction. This note first summarizes the steps of the calorimeter reconstruction software. A detailed description of the two clustering algorithms is then given. A last section summarizes their performance. The results presented in this note are obtained with the ATLAS athena software releases 12 and 13

    Energy Linearity and Resolution of the ATLAS Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter in an Electron Test-Beam

    Get PDF
    A module of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel liquid argon calorimeter was exposed to the CERN electron test-beam at the H8 beam line upgraded for precision momentum measurement. The available energies of the electron beam ranged from 10 to 245 GeV. The electron beam impinged at one point corresponding to a pseudo-rapidity of eta=0.687 and an azimuthal angle of phi=0.28 in the ATLAS coordinate system. A detailed study of several effects biasing the electron energy measurement allowed an energy reconstruction procedure to be developed that ensures a good linearity and a good resolution. Use is made of detailed Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant which describe the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles as well as the energy distributions. For electron energies between 15 GeV and 180 GeV the deviation of the measured incident electron energy over the beam energy is within 0.1%. The systematic uncertainty of the measurement is about 0.1% at low energies and negligible at high energies. The energy resolution is found to be about 10% sqrt(E) for the sampling term and about 0.2% for the local constant term

    Detection of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the gravitationally-lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 with the MAGIC telescopes

    Get PDF
    Context. QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a redshift of 0.944. The gravitational lensing splits the emitted radiation into two components, spatially indistinguishable by gamma-ray instruments, but separated by a 10-12 day delay. In July 2014, QSO B0218+357 experienced a violent flare observed by the Fermi-LAT and followed by the MAGIC telescopes. Aims. The spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 can give information on the energetics of z ~ 1 very high energy gamma- ray sources. Moreover the gamma-ray emission can also be used as a probe of the extragalactic background light at z ~ 1. Methods. MAGIC performed observations of QSO B0218+357 during the expected arrival time of the delayed component of the emission. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations were accompanied by quasi-simultaneous optical data from the KVA telescope and X-ray observations by Swift-XRT. We construct a multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 and use it to model the source. The GeV and sub-TeV data, obtained by Fermi-LAT and MAGIC, are used to set constraints on the extragalactic background light. Results. Very high energy gamma-ray emission was detected from the direction of QSO B0218+357 by the MAGIC telescopes during the expected time of arrival of the trailing component of the flare, making it the farthest very high energy gamma-ray sources detected to date. The observed emission spans the energy range from 65 to 175 GeV. The combined MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 is consistent with current extragalactic background light models. The broad band emission can be modeled in the framework of a two zone external Compton scenario, where the GeV emission comes from an emission region in the jet, located outside the broad line region.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes, Part II: A performance study using observations of the Crab Nebula

    Get PDF
    MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo system. For low zenith angle observations, the standard trigger threshold of the MAGIC telescopes is ~50GeV. The integral sensitivity for point-like sources with Crab Nebula-like spectrum above 220GeV is (0.66+/-0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h of observations. The angular resolution, defined as the sigma of a 2-dimensional Gaussian distribution, at those energies is < 0.07 degree, while the energy resolution is 16%. We also re-evaluate the effect of the systematic uncertainty on the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in the following components: < 15% in energy scale, 11-18% in flux normalization and +/-0.15 for the energy spectrum power-law slope.Comment: 21 pages, 25 figures, accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physic

    Investigating the peculiar emission from the new VHE gamma-ray source H1722+119

    Get PDF
    The MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes observed the BL Lac object H1722+119 (redshift unknown) for six consecutive nights between 2013 May 17 and 22, for a total of 12.5 h. The observations were triggered by high activity in the optical band measured by the KVA (Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien) telescope. The source was for the first time detected in the very high energy (VHE, E>100E > 100 GeV) ő≥\gamma-ray band with a statistical significance of 5.9 ŌÉ\sigma. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.0¬Ī0.5)(2.0\pm 0.5) per cent of the Crab Nebula flux. We used contemporaneous high energy (HE, 100 MeV <E<100 < E < 100 GeV) ő≥\gamma-ray observations from Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) to estimate the redshift of the source. Within the framework of the current extragalactic background light models, we estimate the redshift to be z=0.34¬Ī0.15z = 0.34 \pm 0.15. Additionally, we used contemporaneous X-ray to radio data collected by the instruments on board the Swift satellite, the KVA, and the OVRO (Owens Valley Radio Observatory) telescope to study multifrequency characteristics of the source. We found no significant temporal variability of the flux in the HE and VHE bands. The flux in the optical and radio wavebands, on the other hand, did vary with different patterns. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of H1722+119 shows surprising behaviour in the ‚ąľ3√ó1014‚ąí1018\sim 3\times10^{14} - 10^{18} Hz frequency range. It can be modelled using an inhomogeneous helical jet synchrotron self-Compton model.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, 2 table

    Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes

    Get PDF
    The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. At low energies, MAGIC results, combined with Fermi-LAT data, show a flat and broad Inverse Compton peak. The overall fit to the data between 1 GeV and 30 TeV is not well described by a log-parabola function. We find that a modified log-parabola function with an exponent of 2.5 instead of 2 provides a good description of the data (Ōá2=35/26\chi^2=35/26). Using systematic uncertainties of red the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT measurements we determine the position of the Inverse Compton peak to be at (53 ¬Ī\pm 3stat + 31syst -13syst) GeV, which is the most precise estimation up to date and is dominated by the systematic effects. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV when systematic uncertainties are included in the flux measurement. We consider three state- of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, having particular difficulty reproducing the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.Comment: accepted by JHEAp, 9 pages, 6 figure
    • ‚Ķ