8 research outputs found

    Water quality.

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    <p>Water quality parameters at each caging site along the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta from September 12 to September 30, 2016. Values represent mean ± SEM (n = 8–9).</p

    Fish morphometrics.

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    <p>Length (mm), weight (g) and condition factor of adult fathead minnows caged at each site along the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta. Values shown as mean ± SEM (n = 26–39).</p

    Acute stress response of fathead minnows caged downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Bow River, Calgary

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    <div><p>We examined whether exposure to municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) compromised the stress performance of laboratory-reared fathead minnows (<i>Pimephales promelas</i>) in a field setting. Adult minnows were caged at two sites upstream and three sites downstream of wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) discharging MWWE into the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. At each site one group of fish was sampled after a 26 day exposure to MWWE, while another group was subjected to 1-min air exposure followed by 60-min confinement and then sampled. Fish morphometrics and proximate composition were measured, and whole-body cortisol, glucose and lactate levels assessed as markers of the stress response. The whole-body protein, glycogen and lipid content were higher at the site closest to a WWTP outfall relative to the other downstream and upstream sites. There were no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels in minnows sampled at sites either upstream or downstream of WWTPs. Acute stressor exposure significantly elevated whole-body cortisol levels in all groups, and this response was not modified by the location of the sampling sites. The whole-body metabolite profile, including glucose and lactate levels, were significantly higher in fish caged immediately downstream from WWTP inputs relative to upstream sites. There was an acute-stressor-mediated increase in whole-body lactate, but not glucose, levels and this response was independent of sampling site. The results reveal that the capacity to evoke an acute stress response was not compromised in fathead minnows caged for 26 days downstream of WWTPs in the Bow River. However, there were changes in the whole-body proximate composition and metabolite levels immediately downstream from the WWTP outfall suggesting greater accumulation of energy stores in these fish. Taken together, our results suggest that environmental factors in addition to contaminants, including higher water temperature and nutrient availability, influence the impact of MWWEs on fish stress performance.</p></div

    Stress response.

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    <p>Whole-body cortisol (A), glucose (B), and lactate (C) content in adult fathead minnows caged at five sites along the Bow River, Alberta, from September to October 2016, prior to (0 min; orange boxplots) and after a standardized stressor (60 min; white boxplots). For each boxplot, the line within the box represents the median whole-body concentration (n = 7–10). The box ranges from the first to the third quartile (interquartile range), the whiskers extend to ±1.5 times the interquartile range, and values beyond this are denoted as black dots. Different letters indicate significant differences between sites (p<0.05). The inset indicates a significant main effect of time sampled post-stressor (TPS; p<0.05).</p

    Sampling sites.

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    <p>Map of sampling locations along the Bow River, Alberta. Numbers represent locations where adult fathead minnows were caged relative to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Sampling locations consisted of two sites upstream of the City of Calgary wastewater treatment plants (BEAR: 51° 6'1.77"N, 114°16'24.18"W; CUSH: 51° 2'16.10"N, 114° 0'41.87"W), one site 15 m downstream of a WWTP side-bank discharge (GLEN: 51° 0'32.48"N, 114° 1'8.31"W), one site 250 m (H22X: 50°54'28.03"N, 114° 0'41.62"W) and one site approximately 18 km downstream from WWTP mid-channel diffusers (UPHI: 50°49'8.84"N, 113°47'31.76"W). Arrows indicate the direction of flow.</p

    Contaminant levels.

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    <p>Select pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in μg/L measured at each caging site along the Bow River in September 2016.</p

    Proximate composition.

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    <p>Whole-body glycogen (A; n = 14–20) protein (B; n = 14–20) and lipid (C; n = 10–18) content in adult fathead minnows caged in the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta. For each boxplot, the line within the box represents the median whole-body concentration. The box ranges from the first to the third quartile (interquartile range), the whiskers extend to ±1.5 times the interquartile range, and values beyond this are denoted as black dots. Different letters indicate significant differences between sites (p<0.05).</p

    Whole-body cortisol content.

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    <p>Whole-body cortisol content in adult fathead minnows sampled in the lab before (0 min) and after a standardized stressor (30, 60, 240 min). For each boxplot, the line within the box represents the median whole-body cortisol concentration (n = 11–12). The box ranges from the first to the third quartile (interquartile range), the whiskers extend to ±1.5 times the interquartile range, and values beyond this are denoted as black dots. The asterisks denote a significant difference between stressed fish and unstressed fish (post-hoc Dunnett’s test; p<0.05).</p
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