1,493 research outputs found

    Sensitivity to electricity – Temporal changes in Austria

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>An increasing number of persons suffer from non-specific health symptoms such as headache, sleep disturbances, difficulties in concentrating and more. In lack of a medical explanation, more and more persons take refuge to the assumption that they were electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS) and electromagnetic pollution causes their problems. The discussion whether electromagnetic fields (EMF) could cause such adverse health effects is still ongoing.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Based on the Austrian inhabitants a statistical cross-sample of the general population with regard to age, gender and federal state had been investigated to assess the actual situation and potential temporal changes in comparison with a former study of 1994. In a telephone survey a total number of 526 persons were included.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>This study showed an actual EHS prevalence of 3.5% compared with 2% estimated in 1994. About 70% of the sample believed that electromagnetic pollution could be a risk factor for health. More than 30% declared to at least some degree to be concerned about their well-being near mobile phone base stations or power lines. However, only 10% were actively looking for specific information. Media triggered EHS hypothesis in 24% of the cases.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The results show that concerns about EMF did not decrease with time in spite of scientific studies and health risk assessments concluding that a causal relationship of EMF below recommended reference levels and non-specific health symptoms would be implausible.</p

    Performance Analysis of Throughput Efficient Switch-over between FSO and mmW Links

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    Free Space Optics (FSO) links provide usage of high bandwidth and the flexibility of wireless communication links. However, weather patterns like fog and heavy snow fall limit the availability of FSO. Another technology providing similar properties regarding offered data rates and flexibility of setup is Millimeter Wave Technology (mmW), operating at several tens of GHz. In this case, heavy rain limits mmW link availability. A combination of both technologies had been proved to be very effective to achieve very high availability. Different hybrid architectures of these two links and switch-over techniques had been proposed in the recent years. All of these techniques require redundant transmission on either both transmission links or waste bandwidth of backup link when main FSO link is operational. In this paper, a switch-over between these technologies is proposed, to maintain high availability without the loss of transmission bandwidth. The performance of this switch-over has been simulated for more than one year measured availability data for hybrid network of mmW link and FSO link. The switch over behavior has also been simulated for fog, rain and snow events. It has been shown that the availability with switch-over reaches the redundant link availability but switchover can save more than 90% redundant transmission and increase the hybrid network throughput significantly

    How to find an attractive solution to the liar paradox

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    The general thesis of this paper is that metasemantic theories can play a central role in determining the correct solution to the liar paradox. I argue for the thesis by providing a specific example. I show how Lewis’s reference-magnetic metasemantic theory may decide between two of the most influential solutions to the liar paradox: Kripke’s minimal fixed point theory of truth and Gupta and Belnap’s revision theory of truth. In particular, I suggest that Lewis’s metasemantic theory favours Kripke’s solution to the paradox over Gupta and Belnap’s. I then sketch how other standard criteria for assessing solutions to the liar paradox, such as whether a solution faces a so-called revenge paradox, fit into this picture. While the discussion of the specific example is itself important, the underlying lesson is that we have an unused strategy for resolving one of the hardest problems in philosophy

    Multidimensional en-face OCT imaging of the retina.

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    Fast T-scanning (transverse scanning, en-face) was used to build B-scan or C-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina. Several unique signature patterns of en-face (coronal) are reviewed in conjunction with associated confocal images of the fundus and B-scan OCT images. Benefits in combining T-scan OCT with confocal imaging to generate pairs of OCT and confocal images similar to those generated by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) are discussed in comparison with the spectral OCT systems. The multichannel potential of the OCT/SLO system is demonstrated with the addition of a third hardware channel which acquires and generates indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence images. The OCT, confocal SLO and ICG fluorescence images are simultaneously presented in a two or a three screen format. A fourth channel which displays a live mix of frames of the ICG sequence superimposed on the corresponding coronal OCT slices for immediate multidimensional comparison, is also included. OSA ISP software is employed to illustrate the synergy between the simultaneously provided perspectives. This synergy promotes interpretation of information by enhancing diagnostic comparisons and facilitates internal correction of movement artifacts within C-scan and B-scan OCT images using information provided by the SLO channel

    The structure of causal sets

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    More often than not, recently popular structuralist interpretations of physical theories leave the central concept of a structure insufficiently precisified. The incipient causal sets approach to quantum gravity offers a paradigmatic case of a physical theory predestined to be interpreted in structuralist terms. It is shown how employing structuralism lends itself to a natural interpretation of the physical meaning of causal sets theory. Conversely, the conceptually exceptionally clear case of causal sets is used as a foil to illustrate how a mathematically informed rigorous conceptualization of structure serves to identify structures in physical theories. Furthermore, a number of technical issues infesting structuralist interpretations of physical theories such as difficulties with grounding the identity of the places of highly symmetrical physical structures in their relational profile and what may resolve these difficulties can be vividly illustrated with causal sets.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figure

    Comprehensive vascular imaging using optical coherence tomography-based angiography and photoacoustic tomography

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    Studies have proven the relationship between cutaneous vasculature abnormalities and dermatological disorders, but to image vasculature noninvasively in vivo, advanced optical imaging techniques are required. In this study, we imaged a palm of a healthy volunteer and three subjects with cutaneous abnormalities with photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography with angiography extension (OCTA). Capillaries in the papillary dermis that are too small to be discerned with PAT are visualized with OCTA. From our results, we speculate that the PA signal from the palm is mostly from hemoglobin in capillaries rather than melanin, knowing that melanin concentration in volar skin is significantly smaller than that in other areas of the skin. We present for the first time OCTA images of capillaries along with the PAT images of the deeper vessels, demonstrating the complementary effective imaging depth range and the visualization capabilities of PAT and OCTA for imaging human skin in vivo. The proposed imaging system in this study could significantly improve treatment monitoring of dermatological diseases associated with cutaneous vasculature abnormalities

    Expressing Belief Flow in Assertion Networks

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    Abstract. In the line of some earlier work done on belief dynamics, we propose an abstract model of belief propagation on a graph based on the methodology of the revision theory of truth. A modal language is developed for portraying the behavior of this model, and its expressiveness is discussed. We compare the proposal of this model as well as the language developed with some of the existing frameworks for modelling communication situations.

    Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion

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    Quantitative cross-sectional imaging of vocal folds during phonation is potentially useful for diagnosis and treatments of laryngeal disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique, but its relatively low frame rates makes it challenging to visualize rapidly vibrating tissues. Here, we demonstrate a novel method based on triggered laser scanning to capture 4-dimensional (4D) images of samples in motu at audio frequencies over 100 Hz. As proof-of-concept experiments, we applied this technique to imaging the oscillations of biopolymer gels on acoustic vibrators and aerodynamically driven vibrations of the vocal fold in an ex vivo calf larynx model. Our results suggest that triggered 4D OCT may be useful in understanding and assessing the function of vocal folds and developing novel treatments in research and clinical settings
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