13,530 research outputs found

    Accommodating minority shareholdings within the European Union Merger Control regime: advocating a more cooperative way forward

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    The paper focuses upon a neglected area of EU merger control, the acquisition of minority shareholdings that have the potential to cause competitive harm at the European Union level, and which therefore should be vetted under EU law. Using economic theory and actual cases vetted by European Regulators, the paper demonstrates an EU regulatory enforcement gap in respect of the aforesaid minority shareholdings. The Commission’s recent proposal to end this gap, the so-called targeted transparency system, is then critically explored, revealing that the proposed system suffers from the same problem as the EU merger control regime in respect of mergers with a potential community competition concern: neither can guarantee that nearly all the said mergers and minority shareholdings cases would be vetted under EU law. Therefore, an alternative more cooperative approach, which guarantees that virtually all such cases would come under EU law, is put forward. The more cooperative approach concerning mergers is discussed first, as the approach toward minority shareholdings is an extension of it, establishing an integrated approach. The paper demonstrates how this approach would guarantee that virtually all mergers with a potential Community competition concern would come under EU law, leading to a number of positives: the near elimination of the misallocation problem and associated issues, in addition to streamlining the operation of the said architecture. Thereafter, the paper reveals how the more cooperative approach ensures that virtually all minority shareholdings with a potential to cause competitive harm at the EU level would be vetted under EU law, not only ending this enforcement gap but also leading to an architecture that is more streamlined than would be the case if the Commission’s proposal became law. It is, of course, recognised that the more cooperative approach does not address the minority shareholdings’ enforcement gap that exists at the national level, excluding the three member states which already have this vetting capability

    Patterns of Failure in Texas Urban Improvement Required Schools: An Equity Audit Expansion

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    The achievement gap is a concept that has long been explored in education; students of color, low socioeconomic status, those who speak languages other than English, and students labeled as special education perform lower on student achievement tests and often receive less in terms of funding and resources (Harris & Hopson, 2008). Brown (2010) stated, As a result, these students, without realizing it, often fall into a predetermined mold designed for school failure and social inequity (p. 2)

    Hedonic Price Analysis of Thoroughbred Broodmares in Foal

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    Thoroughbred broodmares are the foundation of a successful racing operation. This study estimated the impact of breeding, racing, genetic, and market characteristics on broodmare auction prices. Data represent 298 broodmares in foal that were sold in Keeneland's 2005 sale. Prices were most responsive to the sire's stud fee and the broodmare's age, with pronounced day-of-sale effects. Overall valuation structure appeared similar to Neibergs' results using 1996 data. Out-of-sample forecasts were far superior to naive forecasts, but were not accurate enough to use in isolation from other decision aids such as visual inspection of the horse.broodmare, Thoroughbred horses, hedonic price analysis, forecasting, Demand and Price Analysis,

    Hedonic Price Analysis of Thoroughbred Broodmares in Foal

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    Thoroughbred broodmares are the foundation of a successful racing operation. This study estimated the impact of breeding, racing, and market characteristics on broodmare auction prices. Data represent 604 in-foal broodmares sold in Keeneland’s 2005 sale. Prices were highly responsive to the sire’s stud fee, the broodmare’s age, and progeny performance in graded stakes races, with pronounced day-of-sale effects. The stud fee marginal value was substantially lower than one break-even estimate, suggesting possible disincentives for investment in stallion services. Out-of-sample forecasts were far superior to naïve forecasts but were not accurate enough to use in isolation from other decision aids.broodmare, forecasting, hedonic price analysis, Thoroughbred, Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries,
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