481 research outputs found

    Massless Dirac Fermions, Gauge Fields, and Underdoped Cuprates

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    We study 2+1 dimensional massless Dirac fermions and bosons coupled to a U(1) gauge field as a model for underdoped cuprates. We find that the uniform susceptibility and the specific heat coefficient are logarithmically enhanced (compared to linear-in-T behavior) due to the fluctuation of transverse gauge field which is the only massless mode at finite boson density. We analyze existing data, and find good agreement in the spin gap phase. Within our picture, the drop of the susceptibility below the superconducting T_c arises from the suppression of gauge fluctuations.Comment: 4 pages, REVTEX, 1 eps figur

    First Light LBT AO Images of HR 8799 bcde at 1.65 and 3.3 Microns: New Discrepancies between Young Planets and Old Brown Dwarfs

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    As the only directly imaged multiple planet system, HR 8799 provides a unique opportunity to study the physical properties of several planets in parallel. In this paper, we image all four of the HR 8799 planets at H-band and 3.3 microns with the new LBT adaptive optics system, PISCES, and LBTI/LMIRCam. Our images offer an unprecedented view of the system, allowing us to obtain H and 3.3$ micron photometry of the innermost planet (for the first time) and put strong upper-limits on the presence of a hypothetical fifth companion. We find that all four planets are unexpectedly bright at 3.3 microns compared to the equilibrium chemistry models used for field brown dwarfs, which predict that planets should be faint at 3.3 microns due to CH4 opacity. We attempt to model the planets with thick-cloudy, non-equilibrium chemistry atmospheres, but find that removing CH4 to fit the 3.3 micron photometry increases the predicted L' (3.8 microns) flux enough that it is inconsistent with observations. In an effort to fit the SED of the HR 8799 planets, we construct mixtures of cloudy atmospheres, which are intended to represent planets covered by clouds of varying opacity. In this scenario, regions with low opacity look hot and bright, while regions with high opacity look faint, similar to the patchy cloud structures on Jupiter and L/T transition brown-dwarfs. Our mixed cloud models reproduce all of the available data, but self-consistent models are still necessary to demonstrate their viability.Comment: Accepted to Ap

    Kepler-21b: A 1.6REarth Planet Transiting the Bright Oscillating F Subgiant Star HD 179070

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    We present Kepler observations of the bright (V=8.3), oscillating star HD 179070. The observations show transit-like events which reveal that the star is orbited every 2.8 days by a small, 1.6 R_Earth object. Seismic studies of HD 179070 using short cadence Kepler observations show that HD 179070 has a frequencypower spectrum consistent with solar-like oscillations that are acoustic p-modes. Asteroseismic analysis provides robust values for the mass and radius of HD 179070, 1.34{\pm}0.06 M{\circ} and 1.86{\pm}0.04 R{\circ} respectively, as well as yielding an age of 2.84{\pm}0.34 Gyr for this F5 subgiant. Together with ground-based follow-up observations, analysis of the Kepler light curves and image data, and blend scenario models, we conservatively show at the >99.7% confidence level (3{\sigma}) that the transit event is caused by a 1.64{\pm}0.04 R_Earth exoplanet in a 2.785755{\pm}0.000032 day orbit. The exoplanet is only 0.04 AU away from the star and our spectroscopic observations provide an upper limit to its mass of ~10 M_Earth (2-{\sigma}). HD 179070 is the brightest exoplanet host star yet discovered by Kepler.Comment: Accepted to Ap

    Effects of antiplatelet therapy on stroke risk by brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases: subgroup analyses of the RESTART randomised, open-label trial

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    Background Findings from the RESTART trial suggest that starting antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of recurrent symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage compared with avoiding antiplatelet therapy. Brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases (such as cerebral microbleeds) are associated with greater risks of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage. We did subgroup analyses of the RESTART trial to explore whether these brain imaging features modify the effects of antiplatelet therapy

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ‚ąö s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector