673 research outputs found

    Relevance of pseudospin symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering

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    The manifestation of pseudospin-symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering is discussed. Constraints on the pseudospin-symmetry violating scattering amplitude are given which require as input cross section and polarization data, but no measurements of the spin rotation function. Application of these constraints to p-58Ni and p-208Pb scattering data in the laboratory energy range of 200 MeV to 800 MeV, reveals a significant violation of the symmetry at lower energies and a weak one at higher energies. Using a schematic model within the Dirac phenomenology, the role of the Coulomb potential in proton-nucleus scattering with regard to pseudospin symmetry is studied. Our results indicate that the existence of pseudospin-symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering is questionable in the whole energy region considered and that the violation of this symmetry stems from the long range nature of the Coulomb interaction.Comment: 22 pages including 9 figures, correction of 1 reference, revision of abstract and major modification of chapter 4, Fig. 6, and Fig. 7; addition of Fig. 8 and Fig.

    Childhood Maltreatment and Early Alcohol Use Among High-Risk Adolescents

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    Objective: Child maltreatment (CM) is prevalent among U.S. youth and has been associated with subsequent maladaptive behaviors, including substance use. The current study examines the associations between early child maltreatment and (1) preteen alcohol-use initiation and (2) heavy episodic drinking among students in a large study of adolescents. Method: The Youth Violence Survey is a cross-sectional survey of public school students enrolled in Grades 7,9, 11, and 12 in a school district in a high-risk community. The analysis sample was limited to students who provided complete data on all relevant variables (N = 3,559). Fifty-two percent of the analysis sample was female. Early child maltreatment was defined as witnessing domestic violence and experiencing physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 10 years. Outcome variables include ever drinking alcohol, preteen alcohol-use initiation, and heavy episodic drinking. Results: Witnessing domestic violence, experiencing physical abuse, and experiencing sexual abuse were significantly associated with preteen alcohol-use initiation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.91; AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.69-2.63; AOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16-2.14, respectively). Students who experienced one or more types of maltreatment were 1.5-3 times more likely to report preteen alcohol-use initiation. Heavy episodic drinking was associated only with childhood sexual abuse in boys (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.52-4.50). Conclusions: Prevention and treatment of the negative impact of early child maltreatment may delay and reduce alcohol use

    Stabilisation of single longitudinal mode operation in a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

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    Detection of the reflected laser beam power from the mode-selecting etalon in a prelase-Q-switched laser provides an indicator of mode-frequency drifts. The detected signal can be used to control a piezo-mounted resonator mirror, thus correcting the drift and providing a means for maintaining single longitudinal mode operation on every shot

    Bovine Cardiac Troponin I Gene (\u3cem\u3eTNNI3\u3c/em\u3e) as a Candidate Gene for Bovine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    The cardiac troponin complex, which is an important component of the contractile apparatus, is composed of the three subunits troponin I (TnI), troponin C (TnC) and troponin T (TnT). Troponin I is the inhibitory subunit and consists of three isoforms encoded by TNNI1, TNNI2 and TNNI3 genes, respectively. Due to the different types of cardiomyopathies caused by mutations in the TNNI3 gene and its fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping on bovine chromosome 18q26, which was shown to be linked to the recessively inherited bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (BDCMP), bovine TNNI3 was considered as candidate gene for BDCMP. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) TNNI3 expression analysis resulted in a significant difference between BDCMP affected and unaffected animals when normalized to ACTB gene expression, but there was no significant difference in expression when normalized to GAPDH. Northen blotting experiment was in agreement with the expression analysis and did not reveal a significant difference between the group of BDCMP affected and unaffected animals. Sequencing of the bovine TNNI3 gene revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 6 (c.378+315G\u3eA), but this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)was present regardless of the BDCMP status. In summary our data provide evidence to exclude the bovine TNNI3 gene as a candidate for BDCMP

    Violation of pseudospin symmetry in nucleon-nucleus scattering: exact relations

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    An exact determination of the size of the pseudospin symmetry violating part of the nucleon-nucleus scattering amplitude from scattering observables is presented. The approximation recently used by Ginocchio turns out to underestimate the violation of pseudospin symmetry. Nevertheless the conclusion of a modestly broken pseudospin symmetry in proton-208Pb scattering at EL=800MeV remains valid.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figure
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