1,389 research outputs found


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    The Ninth Circuit granted a petition for review of the Board of Immigration Appeals decision to deny a deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture. The Board held that the Immigration Judge’s findings granting Delfina Soto-Soto relief under the convention were clearly erroneous. The Board reasoned that the judge failed to acknowledge certain facts that indicate Soto-Soto is not likely to suffer torture if sent back to her country, Mexico. On appeal, Soto-Soto argues that the Board did not apply the correct standard of review. Instead of reviewing the judge’s finding under the clear-error standard, Soto-Soto contends that the Board improperly engaged in de novo review. The Ninth Circuit determined that the Board applied the wrong standard of review and held that Soto-Soto qualifies for relief under the clear error standard

    Comparing Anthropometric Methods To Quantify Relations Between Adiposity And Headache

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    Obesity is associated with increased risk for chronic migraine and migraine progression, but associations with episodic migraine (em) and episodic tension-type headache (tth) are unclear. Most studies have relied on bmi as an indicator of adiposity. More accurate anthropometric measures that distinguish adipose tissue from other body tissue are critical to examine adiposity-headache associations, including validated measures of abdominal adiposity and established measurement formulas such as body adiposity index (bai) and body composition equations developed by Peterson et al. (2003) and Garcia et al. (2005). The present study explored adiposity-headache associations by employing established anthropometric measures of adiposity and comparing individuals with migraine, with tth, and without headache. Participants were 109 young adults meeting ichd-3 criteria for tth or migraine, or without headache. Ninety-three percent of migraineurs had em, and 92.5% of tth sufferers had etth. Researchers measured each participant and calculated adiposity as a function of: bmi, waist circumference, bai, waist-to-hip ratio, and the aforementioned body composition equations. Headache severity and frequency were obtained via diagnostic interview (sdih-3), and headache-related disability was assessed by the headache impact test (hit-6). Manova and a subsequent mancova did not reveal significant differences in adiposity between migraine, tth, and non-headache groups. Regression analyses indicated that among migraineurs, adiposity accounted for 11%, 13%, and 10% of the variance in headache severity, frequency, and disability, respectively, though these proportions were not statistically significant. Among participants with tth, adiposity accounted for 8% (p = .82), 21% (p =.23), and 39% (p = .009) of the variance in headache severity, frequency, and disability. The association with disability among those with tth fell short of significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Adiposity did not differ between headache groups, and no significant associations were found between adiposity and headache frequency, severity, and disability. Findings extend upon existing literature that has established a positive association between obesity and chronic headache, suggesting that adiposity may not be a distinguishing characteristic among individuals with em and etth. Longitudinal studies that employ gold standard methods of adiposity measurement among diverse samples are needed to further clarify the role of adiposity in headache

    Improving collaborative practice to address offender mental health: criminal justice and mental health service professionals’ attitudes towards interagency training, current training needs and constraints,

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    Background Professionals from the mental health and criminal justice system must collaborative effectively to address offender mental health but interprofessional training is lacking. Pedagogical frameworks are required to support the development of training in this new area. Aim To inform this framework this paper explores the readiness of professionals towards interprofessional training and demographic differences in these. It explores expectations of interprofessional training, perceived obstacles to collaborative working, interprofessional training needs and challenges facing delivery. Method A concurrent mixed methods approach collected data from professionals attending a crossing boundaries interprofessional workshop. Data was collected through a combination of the RIPLS questionnaire (n=52), free text questions (n=52) and focus groups (n=6). Findings and Conclusions Mental health and criminal justice professionals’ attitudes towards interprofessional learning were positive (x=17.81; n=43). They did not see their own service as insular (x =4.02; n=44) and reported strong person centredness (x= 6.07; n=43). This suggests professionals are open to the introduction and implementation of future interprofessional training. There were no significant demographic differences in these attitudes. Professionals raised a range of generic curriculum and educator mechanisms in the development of future interprofessional training suggesting the transfer of pedagogical frameworks from established interprofessional programmes into this new arena is feasible. Context specific factors such offender national policy agendas and the challenges of user involvement using mentally ill offenders must be taken into account. Greater clarity on multi versus interprofessional training is still required with this group of professionals. Key words: mental health, offenders, criminal justice, interprofessional training

    TRIPS, the Doha declaration and paragraph 6 decision: what are the remaining steps for protecting access to medicines?

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    BACKGROUND: The World Trade Organisation's Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (known as the Doha Declaration) of 2001, and subsequent Decision on the Interpretation of Paragraph 6 reached in 2003, affirmed the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade Related Property Rights (TRIPS) to member states seeking to protect public health. Despite these important clarifications, the actual implementation of these measures to improve access to medicines remains uncertain. There are also concerns that so-called TRIPS-plus measures within many regional and bilateral trade agreements are further undermining the capacity of the poor to access affordable medicines. METHODS: The paper reviews policy debates among governments, nongovernmental organisations and international organisations from 1995, and notably since 2003, surrounding access to medicines and trade agreements. The provisions for protecting public health provided by the Doha Declaration and Paragraph 6 Decision are reviewed in terms of challenges for implementation, along with measures to protect intellectual property rights (IPRs) under selected regional and bilateral trade agreements. RESULTS: While provisions, in principle, were affirmed for member states under the TRIPS agreement to protect public health, numerous challenges remain. Implementation of the flexibilities has been hindered by lack of capacity in many LMICs. More intransigent have been stark inequalities in power and influence among trading nations, leaving LMICs vulnerable to pressures to permit the globalization of IPRs in order to protect broader trade and economic interests. Such inequalities are apparent in proposals or adopted TRIPS-plus measures which re-establish the primacy of trade over public health goals. CONCLUSION: Despite being hailed as a "watershed in international trade", the Doha Declaration and Paragraph 6 decision have not resolved the problem of access to affordable medicines. The way forward must begin with a simplification of their content, to enable actual implementation. More fundamentally, once agreed, public health protections under TRIPS must be recognised as taking precedent over measures subsequently adopted under other trade agreements. This requires, above all, setting aside such protections as a basic need and shared goal from trade negotiations at all levels

    Women of Color on Teaching Race

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    Women of color discuss issues of race in a teaching and learning context. In doing so we will include discussion of the differences in the philosophical approaches to teaching about race in academe and the barriers encountered in the classroom
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