977 research outputs found

    A comparison of founder-only and all-pedigree-members genotype-expression association by regression analysis

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    Genotype-expression association analysis using linear regression may produce different test results depending on whether founders only or all pedigreed members are used. This difference is not due to the correlation of samples within a pedigree, because linear mixed models have been applied to account for that correlation. We investigated the possibility that the difference is due to a dependence of expression levels on, among other things, the generation number in the pedigree. Indeed, of the 30 or so studied expression quantitative traits, several of them show significant dependence on the generation number. We propose to use all pedigree members in genotype-expression association analyses whenever the complete genotyping information is available

    Population Dynamics of Five Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group in Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea

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    To investigate the population densities of potential malaria vectors, Anopheles species were collected by light traps in malaria endemic areas, Paju and Gimpo, Gyeonggi-do of Korea. Five Anopheles Hyrcanus sibling species (An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri, An. kleini, and An. belenrae) were identified by PCR. The predominant species, An. pullus was collected during the late spring and mid-summer, while higher population consists of An. sinensis were collected from late summer to early autumn. These 2 species accounted for 92.1% of all Anopheles mosquitoes collected, while the other 3 species accounted for 7.9%. Taking into account of these population densities, late seasonal prevalence, and long-term incubation period (9-13 months) of the Korean Plasmodium vivax strain, An. sinensis s.s is thought to play an important role in the transmission of vivax malaria in the study areas

    Photo-stability study of a solution-processed small molecule solar cell system: correlation between molecular conformation and degradation

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    <p>Solution-processed organic small molecule solar cells (SMSCs) have achieved efficiency over 11%. However, very few studies have focused on their stability under illumination and the origin of the degradation during the so-called burn-in period. Here, we studied the burn-in period of a solution-processed SMSC using benzodithiophene terthiophene rhodamine:[6,6]-phenyl C<sub>71</sub> butyric acid methyl ester (BTR:PC<sub>71</sub>BM) with increasing solvent vapour annealing time applied to the active layer, controlling the crystallisation of the BTR phase. We find that the burn-in behaviour is strongly correlated to the crystallinity of BTR. To look at the possible degradation mechanisms, we studied the fresh and photo-aged blend films with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorbance, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Although the crystallinity of BTR affects the performance drop during the burn-in period, the degradation is found not to originate from the crystallinity changes of the BTR phase, but correlates with changes in molecular conformation – rotation of the thiophene side chains, as resolved by Raman spectroscopy which could be correlated to slight photobleaching and changes in PL spectra.</p

    Development of Self-Assembling Mixed Protein Micelles with Temperature-Modulated Avidities

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    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are polypentapeptides that undergo hydrophobic collapse and aggregation above a specific transition temperature, Tt. ELP diblocks sharing a common “core” block (I60) but varying “outer” blocks (A80, P40) were designed, where Tt,I \u3c Tt,A \u3c Tt,P. The formation of ~55 nm diameter mixed micelles from these ELP diblocks was verified using dynamic light scattering (DLS), multiangle light scattering (MALS) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To confer affinity to the blood circulating protein fibrinogen, a fibrinogen-binding tetrapeptide sequence (GPRP) was fused to A80-I60, while P40-I60 was fused to a non-binding control (GPSP). The self-assembling, peptide-displaying, mixed micelles exhibit temperature-modulated avidities for immobilized and soluble fibrinogen at 32 °C and 42 °C. In this initial proof-of-concept design, the engineered mixed micelles were shown to disengage fibrinogen at elevated temperatures. The modular nature of this system can be used for developing in vivo depot systems that will only be triggered to release in situ upon specific stimuli

    Effect of Cosensitization with Buckwheat Flour Extract on the Production of House Dust Mite-specific IgE

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    There are studies reporting food sensitization in infancy increases the risk of sensitization to inhalants later in life. We performed a study to evaluate whether cosensitization with buckwheat (BW) has an effect on the production of house dust mite-IgE. C3H/HeJ mice (4 weeks, female) were sensitized with house dust mite (HDM)/Al (OH)3, intraperitoneally on day 0, followed by 4 intranasal sensitizations (on days 14, 15, 16, and 21). Group 1 was cosensitized intragastrically with BW/cholera toxin (CT) (on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 18) during sensitization with HDM, group 2 was cosensitized intragastrically with CT only (on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 18), and group 3 was used as controls. HDM- and BW-IgE and antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were evaluated. In Group 1, BW-IgE levels were highest at week 4, and the HDM-IgE at week 3 (98.45±64.37 ng/mL and 169.86±55.54 ng/mL, respectively). In Group 2, HDM-IgE levels reached a peak at week 3, remarkably higher (810.52±233.29 ng/mL) compared to those of Group 1 (169.86±55.54 ng/mL). The interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the HDM-stimulated culture supernatants of splenocytes were not significantly different among groups. We postulate that the cosensitization with BW may down-regulate the specific IgE response to HDM

    Synergistic effect of ERK inhibition on tetrandrine-induced apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

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    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the root of Stephania tetrandra, is known to have anti-tumor activity in various malignant neoplasms. However, the precise mechanism by which TET inhibits tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. The present studies were performed to characterize the potential effects of TET on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways since these signaling pathways are known to be responsible for cell growth and survival. TET suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. TET treatment resulted in a down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation in both time-/concentration-dependent manners. The inhibition of ERK using PD98059 synergistically enhanced the TET-induced apoptosis of A549 cells whereas the inhibition of Akt using LY294002 had a less significant effect. Taken together, our results suggest that TET: i) selectively inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells by blocking Akt activation and ii) increases apoptosis by inhibiting ERK. The treatment of lung cancers with TET may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and increase the apoptotic potential of lung cancer cells

    From fullerene acceptors to non-fullerene acceptors: prospects and challenges in the stability of organic solar cells

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    The recent emergence of non-fullerene small molecule acceptors has reinvigorated the field of organic solar cells, already resulting in significant breakthroughs in their power conversion efficiency and discovery of remarkable new science. The stability and degradation of this class of materials and devices, on the other hand, has to date received relatively less attention. Herein, we present a critical review into the fundamentally different degradation mechanisms of non-fullerene acceptors compared to fullerene acceptors, as well as the very different roles they play upon the charge carrier generation and recombination kinetics and the resulting solar cell stability. We highlight in particular the prospect of the emergence of non-fullerene acceptors in addressing several major degradation mechanisms related to the use of fullerene acceptors, in conjunction with a number of unique degradation mechanisms that only exist in non-fullerene acceptors, which would provide an important guideline for further developments toward achieving long-term stability of organic solar cells
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