9,840 research outputs found

    Acupuncture for persistent insomnia associated with major depressive disorder: a randomised controlled trial

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    Daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine reduced Streptococcus and increased Erysipelotrichaceae in rectal microbiota.

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    Daily PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV-1 acquisition, but risks of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) include renal decline and bone mineral density decrease in addition to initial gastrointestinal side effects. We investigated the impact of TDF-FTC on the enteric microbiome using rectal swabs collected from healthy MSM before PrEP initiation and after 48 to 72 weeks of adherent PrEP use. The V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing showed that Streptococcus was significantly reduced from 12.0% to 1.2% (p = 0.036) and Erysipelotrichaceae family was significantly increased from 0.79% to 3.3% (p = 0.028) after 48-72 weeks of daily PrEP. Catenibacterium mitsuokai, Holdemanella biformis and Turicibacter sanguinis were increased within the Erysipelotrichaceae family and Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis were reduced. These changes were not associated with host factors including PrEP duration, age, race, tenofovir diphosphate blood level, any drug use and drug abuse, suggesting that the observed microbiome shifts were likely induced by daily PrEP use. Long-term PrEP resulted in increases of Catenibacterium mitsuokai and Holdemanella biformis, which have been associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis. Our observations can aid in characterizing PrEP's side effects, which is likely to improve PrEP adherence, and thus HIV-1 prevention

    Clinical guidelines for the management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

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    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant condition caused by post-zygotic, activating mutations of the GNAS gene that results in inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of bone-forming stromal cells and leads to the replacement of normal bone and marrow by fibrous tissue and woven bone. The phenotype is variable and may be isolated to a single skeletal site or multiple sites and sometimes is associated with extraskeletal manifestations in the skin and/or endocrine organs (McCune-Albright syndrome). The clinical behavior and progression of FD may also vary, thereby making the management of this condition difficult with few established clinical guidelines. This paper provides a clinically-focused comprehensive description of craniofacial FD, its natural progression, the components of the diagnostic evaluation and the multi-disciplinary management, and considerations for future research

    Serum adiponectin levels are predictive of carotid intima-medial thickness in a 5-year community-based prospective study

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    Poster PresentationINTRODUCTION: Hypoadiponectinaemia has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction in prospective studies. We have previously reported that hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation both in healthy controls and diabetic subjects. In this community-based prospective cohort study, we examined the predictive value of serum adiponectin levels on carotid intima-medial thickness, a marker of …published_or_final_versionThe 17th Medical Research Conference, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 14 January 2012. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2012, v. 18 suppl. 1, p. 32, abstract no. 4
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