21,264 research outputs found

    Use of Portable Piloting Units by Maritime Pilots

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    The use of electronic navigation equipment onboard maritime vessels continues to increase, worldwide. The results of a recent Canadian study provide clear evidence that maritime pilots know what types of equipment to use -- and how to use them

    Integrated Navigation System: Not a Sum of Its Parts

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    Similar to the evolutionary process for living organisms, marine navigation systems are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated. Both by design and function, shipboard and shore-based navigation systems are no longer individual equipment components operating independently. Instead, the trend is toward integration, data fusion and synergy. One example of this are new Performance Standards being considered by IMO to achieve a “harmonized” presentation of all navigation-related information on the display of an integrated navigation system (INS). Unlike a dedicated display for ECDIS or radar, the new INS displays will be a task-oriented composite presentations that enable the mariner to configure the display for an operational situation by selecting specific chart, radar, radar plotting aids (ARPA) and AIS information that is required for the task-at-hand. This paper gives a brief overview of the trend toward the development of INS. In addition to a brief summary of IMO performance standards for navigation equipment/systems, specific mention is made about a BSH (Germany) report on the “Functional Scope and Model of INS.” A discussion is provided about the challenges of providing navigation safety information that goes beyond traditional boundaries of products and services. Currently, many agencies continue to produce individual products and services on a component basis. Hydrographic offices grapple with trying to provide multiple products and services for paper charts, raster navigational charts (RNCs) and electronic navigational charts (ENCs) while a same time, Coast Guard and Maritime Safety agencies focus on improving Aids-to-Navigation (AtoN), Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), AIS networks -- and more recently, port security. In some respects, the continued concentration on separate products and services represents an organizational reluctance to change. This in turn, results in a fragmented, sub-optimal approach to the safety-of-navigation caused by the inability to provide mariners with “seamless” information at reasonable cost. In particular, hydrographic offices must be willing to recognize that chart information can no longer be considered to be separate, individual products. When it comes to the provision and use of chart-related information for use in an INS, the focus needs to shift to what information is actually desired, how it will be provided, what other information it will be used with, and whether it is truly up-todate

    Spin-Filtering Multiferroic-Semiconductor Heterojunctions

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    We report on the structural and electronic properties of the interface between the multiferoic oxide YMnO3_3 and wide band-gap semiconductor GaN studied with the Hubbard-corrected local spin density approximation (LSDA+U) to density-functional theory (DFT). We find that the band offsets at the interface between antiferromagnetically ordered YMnO3_3 and GaN are different for spin-up and spin-down states. This behavior is due to the spin splitting of the valence band induced by the interface. The energy barrier depends on the relative orientation of the electric polarization with respect to the polarization direction of the GaN substrate suggesting an opportunity to create magnetic tunnel junctions in this materials system.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Fully anharmonic infrared cascade spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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    The infrared (IR) emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) permeates our universe; astronomers have detected the IR signatures of PAHs around many interstellar objects. The IR emission of interstellar PAHs differs from their emission as seen under conditions on Earth, as they emit through a collisionless cascade down through their excited vibrational states from high internal energies. The difficulty in reproducing interstellar conditions in the laboratory results in a reliance on theoretical techniques. However, the size and complexity of PAHs requires careful consideration when producing the theoretical spectra. In this work we outline the theoretical methods necessary to lead to a fully theoretical IR cascade spectra of PAHs including: an anharmonic second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) treatment; the inclusion of Fermi resonances through polyads; and the calculation of anharmonic temperature band shifts and broadenings (including resonances) through a Wang--Landau approach. We also suggest a simplified scheme to calculate vibrational emission spectra that retains the essential characteristics of the full IR cascade treatment and can directly transform low temperature absorption spectra in IR cascade spectra. Additionally we show that past astronomical models were in error in assuming a 15 cm1^{-1} correction was needed to account for anharmonic emission effects

    Vacuum decay and internal symmetries

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    We study the effects of internal symmetries on the decay by bubble nucleation of a metastable false vacuum. The zero modes about the bounce solution that are associated with the breaking of continuous internal symmetries result in an enhancement of the tunneling rate into vacua in which some of the symmetries of the initial state are spontaneously broken. We develop a general formalism for evaluating the effects of these zero modes on the bubble nucleation rate in both flat and curved space-times.Comment: LaTex, 11 pages, No figures, one minor chang