6,568 research outputs found

    A Computer Program for Simplifying Incompletely Specified Sequential Machines Using the Paull and Unger Technique

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    This report presents a description of a computer program mechanized to perform the Paull and Unger process of simplifying incompletely specified sequential machines. An understanding of the process, as given in Ref. 3, is a prerequisite to the use of the techniques presented in this report. This process has specific application in the design of asynchronous digital machines and was used in the design of operational support equipment for the Mariner 1966 central computer and sequencer. A typical sequential machine design problem is presented to show where the Paull and Unger process has application. A description of the Paull and Unger process together with a description of the computer algorithms used to develop the program mechanization are presented. Several examples are used to clarify the Paull and Unger process and the computer algorithms. Program flow diagrams, program listings, and a program user operating procedures are included as appendixes

    Scintillator developments for high energy physics and medical imaging

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    Scintillating crystals have been for a long time developed as a basic component in particle detectors with a strong spin-off in the field of medical imaging. A typical example is BGO, which has become the main component of PET scanners since the large effort made by the L3 experiment at CERN to develop low cost production methods for this crystal. Systematic R&D on basic mechanism in inorganic scintillators, initiated by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN 10 years ago, has contributed not to a small amount, to the development of new materials for high energy physics and for a new generation of medical imaging devices with increased resolution and sensitivity. The examples of the lead tungstate crystal for the CMS experiment at CERN (high energy physics) as well as of new materials under development for medical imaging will be described with an emphasis on the mutual benefit both fields can extract from a common R&D effort. (14 refs)

    On the comparison of analog and digital SiPM readout in terms of expected timing performance

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    AbstractIn time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) and in particular for the EndoTOFPET-US Project (Frisch, 2013 [1]), and other applications for high energy physics, the multi-digital silicon photomultiplier (MD-SiPM) was recently proposed (Mandai and Charbon, 2012 [2]), in which the time of every single photoelectron is being recorded. If such a photodetector is coupled to a scintillator, the largest and most accurate timing information can be extracted from the cascade of the scintillation photons, and the most probable time of positron emission determined. The readout concept of the MD-SiPM is very different from that of the analog SiPM, where the individual photoelectrons are merely summed up and the output signal fed into the readout electronics. We have developed a comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool that describes the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal. In previous studies we have compared MC simulations with coincidence time resolution (CTR) measurements and found good agreement within less than 10% for crystals of different lengths (from 3mm to 20mm) coupled to SiPMs from Hamamatsu. In this work we will use the developed MC tool to directly compare the highest possible time resolution for both the analog and digital readout of SiPMs with different scintillator lengths. The presented studies reveal that the analog readout of SiPMs with microcell signal pile-up and leading edge discrimination can lead to nearly the same time resolution as compared to the maximum likelihood time estimation applied to MD-SiPMs. Consequently there is no real preference for either a digital or analog SiPM for the sake of achieving highest time resolution. However, the best CTR in the analog SiPM is observed for a rather small range of optimal threshold values, whereas the MD-SiPM provides stable CTR after roughly 20 registered photoelectron timestamps in the time estimator

    Design considerations for a new generation of SiPMs with unprecedented timing resolution

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    The potential of photon detectors to achieve precise timing information is of increasing importance in many domains, PET and CT scanners in medical imaging and particle physics detectors, amongst others. The goal to increase by an order of magnitude the sensitivity of PET scanners and to deliver, via time-of-flight (TOF), true space points for each event, as well as the constraints set by future particle accelerators require a further leap in time resolution of scintillator-based ionizing radiation detectors, reaching eventually a few picoseconds resolution for sub MeV energy deposits. In spite of the impressive progress made in the last decade by several manufacturers, the Single Photon Time Resolution (SPTR) of SiPMs is still in the range of 70-120ps FWHM, whereas a value of 10ps or even less would be desirable. Such a step requires a break with traditional methods and the development of novel technologies. The possibility of combining the extraordinary potential of nanophotonics with new approaches offered by modern microelectronics and 3D electronic integration opens novel perspectives for the development of a new generation of metamaterial-based SiPMs with unprecedented photodetection efficiency and timing resolution.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, submitted to JINS

    Application of a simplifying model to the breakage of different materials in an air jet mill

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    Cet article est paru de nouveau en 2012 dans la revue "International journal of mineral processing", special issue Comminution 2009, (ESCC 2009 - European Symposium on Comminution and Classification, Espoo, Finland, September 15-18, 2009) vol. 112-113, pp. 7-12. (L'article de référence reste celui de 2011 pour les citations bibliographiques).International audienceThis paper describes the application of a unifying `master curve' model for single impact size reduction in an air jet mill. Based on a dimensional analysis and a modified fracture mechanical theory, it enables to relate the weight percentage of broken particles under sieve cut size to the mean sieve cut size of the studied material, the net kinetic energy provided to the material, the number of impacts and a global parameter f(Mat). Altogether 11 sieve cuts of different materials are impacted in an experimental air jet mill. Minimum breakage energies are derived and are shown to vary with a power function of the sieve cut size. The simplifying model is then successfully applied and enables to derive the fMat. parameters. In our situation, the experimental data do not show a direct relationship between fMat. and the minimum breakage energy and sieve cut size for all the materials

    Avaliação da predação de rato-preto Rattus rattus nas crias de cagarra Calonectris diomedea borealis na Ilha da Berlenga

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    Berlengas Archipelago is the most important area in mainland Portugal for breeding seabirds. The archipelago hosts the only known breeding population of the vulnerable Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis in mainland Portuguese coastal waters. Although this population has already been the subject of many studies, little is known about its interaction with black rat Rattus rattus. Black rat and rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus are the only introduced mammals on the island, and the first is listed as one of the main predators of Cory’s Shearwater chicks. This study aimed to 1) evaluate the activity of black rat in two Cory’s Shearwater colonies and 2) report events of predation on chicks. For this, 54 and 20 nests were monitored daily in the colonies of Melreu and Furado Seco, respectively, between July 24 and August 6. Meanwhile, 16 photographic traps were installed within or at the entrance of 29 different nests in order to monitor rats’ activity. Despite not having obtained any record from direct predation of black rat, 2 chicks disappeared from the nest (with no photo trap) with a strong likelihood of being predated. Although in Melreu have been noticed a strong decrease in activity of black rat during development of chicks and Furado Seco not, the data presented here suggest a greater and more prolonged activity of rat at the second, which may indicate it’s under greater predatory pressure. Finnally it was found some evidences on possible impact by yellow-legged-gull on Cory’s shearwater chicks
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