204 research outputs found

    The pre-launch Planck Sky Model: a model of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths

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    We present the Planck Sky Model (PSM), a parametric model for the generation of all-sky, few arcminute resolution maps of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths, in both intensity and polarisation. Several options are implemented to model the cosmic microwave background, Galactic diffuse emission (synchrotron, free-free, thermal and spinning dust, CO lines), Galactic H-II regions, extragalactic radio sources, dusty galaxies, and thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals from clusters of galaxies. Each component is simulated by means of educated interpolations/extrapolations of data sets available at the time of the launch of the Planck mission, complemented by state-of-the-art models of the emission. Distinctive features of the simulations are: spatially varying spectral properties of synchrotron and dust; different spectral parameters for each point source; modeling of the clustering properties of extragalactic sources and of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic infrared background. The PSM enables the production of random realizations of the sky emission, constrained to match observational data within their uncertainties, and is implemented in a software package that is regularly updated with incoming information from observations. The model is expected to serve as a useful tool for optimizing planned microwave and sub-millimetre surveys and to test data processing and analysis pipelines. It is, in particular, used for the development and validation of data analysis pipelines within the planck collaboration. A version of the software that can be used for simulating the observations for a variety of experiments is made available on a dedicated website.Comment: 35 pages, 31 figure

    Component separation methods for the Planck mission

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    The Planck satellite will map the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. The CMB intensity and polarization that are its prime targets are contaminated by foreground emission. The goal of this paper is to compare proposed methods for separating CMB from foregrounds based on their different spectral and spatial characteristics, and to separate the foregrounds into components of different physical origin. A component separation challenge has been organized, based on a set of realistically complex simulations of sky emission. Several methods including those based on internal template subtraction, maximum entropy method, parametric method, spatial and harmonic cross correlation methods, and independent component analysis have been tested. Different methods proved to be effective in cleaning the CMB maps from foreground contamination, in reconstructing maps of diffuse Galactic emissions, and in detecting point sources and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals. The power spectrum of the residuals is, on the largest scales, four orders of magnitude lower than that of the input Galaxy power spectrum at the foreground minimum. The CMB power spectrum was accurately recovered up to the sixth acoustic peak. The point source detection limit reaches 100 mJy, and about 2300 clusters are detected via the thermal SZ effect on two thirds of the sky. We have found that no single method performs best for all scientific objectives. We foresee that the final component separation pipeline for Planck will involve a combination of methods and iterations between processing steps targeted at different objectives such as diffuse component separation, spectral estimation and compact source extraction.Comment: Matches version accepted by A&A. A version with high resolution figures is available at http://people.sissa.it/~leach/compsepcomp.pd

    α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Role in Early Odor Learning Preference in Mice

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    Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7) in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP), an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5–18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor) for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21), mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits

    Planck Intermediate Results. IV. The XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

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    We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags derived from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and Digitized Sky Survey all-sky maps, with the aim of pushing into the low SZ flux, high-z regime and testing RASS flags as indicators of candidate reliability. 14 new clusters were detected by XMM, including 2 double systems. Redshifts lie in the range 0.2 to 0.9, with 6 clusters at z>0.5. Estimated M500 range from 2.5 10^14 to 8 10^14 Msun. We discuss our results in the context of the full XMM validation programme, in which 51 new clusters have been detected. This includes 4 double and 2 triple systems, some of which are chance projections on the sky of clusters at different z. We find that association with a RASS-BSC source is a robust indicator of the reliability of a candidate, whereas association with a FSC source does not guarantee that the SZ candidate is a bona fide cluster. Nevertheless, most Planck clusters appear in RASS maps, with a significance greater than 2 sigma being a good indication that the candidate is a real cluster. The full sample gives a Planck sensitivity threshold of Y500 ~ 4 10^-4 arcmin^2, with indication for Malmquist bias in the YX-Y500 relation below this level. The corresponding mass threshold depends on z. Systems with M500 > 5 10^14 Msun at z > 0.5 are easily detectable with Planck. The newly-detected clusters follow the YX-Y500 relation derived from X-ray selected samples. Compared to X-ray selected clusters, the new SZ clusters have a lower X-ray luminosity on average for their mass. There is no indication of departure from standard self-similar evolution in the X-ray versus SZ scaling properties. (abridged)Comment: accepted by A&

    Origin of enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization and all-optical nuclear magnetic resonance in GaAs quantum wells

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    Time-resolved optical measurements of electron-spin dynamics in a (110) GaAs quantum well are used to study the consequences of a strongly anisotropic electron g-tensor, and the origin of previously discovered all-optical nuclear magnetic resonance. All components of the g-tensor are measured, and a strong anisotropy even along the in-plane directions is found. The amplitudes of the spin signal allow the study of the spatial directions of the injected spin and its precession axis. Surprisingly efficient dynamic nuclear polarization in a geometry where the electron spins are injected almost transverse to the applied magnetic field is attributed to an enhanced non-precessing electron spin component. The small absolute value of the electron g-factor combined with efficient nuclear spin polarization leads to large nuclear fields that dominate electron spin precession at low temperatures. These effects allow for sensitive detection of all-optical nuclear magnetic resonance induced by periodically excited quantum-well electrons. The mechanism of previously observed Delta m = 2 transitions is investigated and found to be attributable to electric quadrupole coupling, whereas Delta m = 1 transitions show signatures of both quadrupole and electron-spin induced magnetic dipole coupling.Comment: 40 pages, 8 figure

    Planck Intermediate Results II: Comparison of Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements from Planck and from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager for 11 galaxy clusters

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    A comparison is presented of Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements for 11 galaxy clusters as obtained by Planck and by the ground-based interferometer, the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager. Assuming a universal spherically-symmetric Generalised Navarro, Frenk & White (GNFW) model for the cluster gas pressure profile, we jointly constrain the integrated Compton-Y parameter (Y_500) and the scale radius (theta_500) of each cluster. Our resulting constraints in the Y_500-theta_500 2D parameter space derived from the two instruments overlap significantly for eight of the clusters, although, overall, there is a tendency for AMI to find the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal to be smaller in angular size and fainter than Planck. Significant discrepancies exist for the three remaining clusters in the sample, namely A1413, A1914, and the newly-discovered Planck cluster PLCKESZ G139.59+24.18. The robustness of the analysis of both the Planck and AMI data is demonstrated through the use of detailed simulations, which also discount confusion from residual point (radio) sources and from diffuse astrophysical foregrounds as possible explanations for the discrepancies found. For a subset of our cluster sample, we have investigated the dependence of our results on the assumed pressure profile by repeating the analysis adopting the best-fitting GNFW profile shape which best matches X-ray observations. Adopting the best-fitting profile shape from the X-ray data does not, in general, resolve the discrepancies found in this subset of five clusters. Though based on a small sample, our results suggest that the adopted GNFW model may not be sufficiently flexible to describe clusters universally.Comment: update to metadata author list onl

    Planck intermediate results. III. The relation between galaxy cluster mass and Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal

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    We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal D_A^2 Y for a sample of 19 objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses are derived from XMM-Newton archive data and the SZ effect signal is measured from Planck all-sky survey data. We find an M_WL-D_A^2 Y relation that is consistent in slope and normalisation with previous determinations using weak lensing masses; however, there is a normalisation offset with respect to previous measures based on hydrostatic X-ray mass-proxy relations. We verify that our SZ effect measurements are in excellent agreement with previous determinations from Planck data. For the present sample, the hydrostatic X-ray masses at R_500 are on average ~ 20 per cent larger than the corresponding weak lensing masses, at odds with expectations. We show that the mass discrepancy is driven by a difference in mass concentration as measured by the two methods, and, for the present sample, the mass discrepancy and difference in mass concentration is especially large for disturbed systems. The mass discrepancy is also linked to the offset in centres used by the X-ray and weak lensing analyses, which again is most important in disturbed systems. We outline several approaches that are needed to help achieve convergence in cluster mass measurement with X-ray and weak lensing observations.Comment: 19 pages, 9 figures, matches accepted versio

    Planck intermediate results. VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters

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    About half of the baryons of the Universe are expected to be in the form of filaments of hot and low density intergalactic medium. Most of these baryons remain undetected even by the most advanced X-ray observatories which are limited in sensitivity to the diffuse low density medium. The Planck satellite has provided hundreds of detections of the hot gas in clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and is an ideal instrument for studying extended low density media through the tSZ effect. In this paper we use the Planck data to search for signatures of a fraction of these missing baryons between pairs of galaxy clusters. Cluster pairs are good candidates for searching for the hotter and denser phase of the intergalactic medium (which is more easily observed through the SZ effect). Using an X-ray catalogue of clusters and the Planck data, we select physical pairs of clusters as candidates. Using the Planck data we construct a local map of the tSZ effect centered on each pair of galaxy clusters. ROSAT data is used to construct X-ray maps of these pairs. After having modelled and subtracted the tSZ effect and X-ray emission for each cluster in the pair we study the residuals on both the SZ and X-ray maps. For the merging cluster pair A399-A401 we observe a significant tSZ effect signal in the intercluster region beyond the virial radii of the clusters. A joint X-ray SZ analysis allows us to constrain the temperature and density of this intercluster medium. We obtain a temperature of kT = 7.1 +- 0.9, keV (consistent with previous estimates) and a baryon density of (3.7 +- 0.2)x10^-4, cm^-3. The Planck satellite mission has provided the first SZ detection of the hot and diffuse intercluster gas.Comment: Accepted by A&