153 research outputs found

    Clusters, human capital and economic development in Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire

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    Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire are two of the most high tech economies in the UK (see for example DTI, 2002 and Garnsey and Lawton Smith, 1998). They are home to world class research universities and public and private research laboratories as well as a full range of business and professional services which support the development of their clusters. Building on previous work (Lawton Smith and Waters, 2011) this paper draws on national datasets to review the continued development of these economies. The paper considers issues such as new firm formation, sectoral composition and gross value added and relates them to social inclusion and worklessness. The paper draws on literature which emphasises the endogeneity of processes within regions, but also on studies which show that there are different kinds of high tech regions with varying industrial structures. Conclusions are drawn on the extent to which the presence of successful clusters (Spencer et al, 2010) influences outcomes for the local economy more generally, and how Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire have performed over the last ten years

    Entrepreneurship, innovation and the triple helix model: evidence from Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire

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    This paper focuses on how regions become entrepreneurial and the extent to which the actors in the triple helix model are dominant at particular stages in development. It uses the case studies of Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire in the UK to explore this theme. Both can now be described as ‘regional triple helix spaces’ (Etzkowitz 2008), and form two points of the Golden Triangle of Oxford, Cambridge and London universities. As entrepreneurial regions, however, they differ in a number of respects. This is not surprising given their differing geo-historical contexts. However, by comparing the two similar counties but which have their own distinctive features we are able to explore different dynamics which lead to the inception, implementation, consolidation and renewal (Etzkowitz and Klofsten 2005) of regions characterised by very high levels of technology-based entrepreneurship

    Universities, Innovation and the Economy

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    Universities are increasingly expected to be at the heart of networked structures contributing to society in meaningful and measurable ways through research, the teaching and development of experts, and knowledge innovation. While there is nothing new in universities’ links with industry, what is recent is their role as territorial actors. It is government policy in many countries that universities - and in some countries national laboratories - stimulate regional or local economic development. Universities, Innovation and the Economy explores the implications of this expectation. It sites this new role within the context of broader political histories, comparing how countries in Europe and North America have balanced the traditional roles of teaching and research with that of exploitation of research and defining a territorial role. Helen Lawton-Smith highlights how pressure from the state and from industry has produced new paradigms of accountability tha

    Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

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    The regional innovation systems (RIS) approach tends to be short in the coverage of the importance of agency in the dynamics of economic change. This paper addresses this by putting the entrepreneur, which Schumpeter (Capitalism, socialism and democracy. Harper & Row, 1911/1934) placed at the heart of the analysis of economic change, as the driving force of regional innovation systems and associated policies. This is consistent with work by Feldman and Francis (Clusters and Regional Development, Routledge, 2006) who identified the entrepreneur as a regional agent of change. The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy. There are three major themes. The first is the agency of both entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship policies in an RIS. The second is the rationale for entrepreneurship policies in an RIS. The third relates to what do entrepreneurship policies look like in RIS and how they might be evaluated as contributing towards an RIS

    The economic ecology of small businesses in Oxfordshire

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    Report by the Oxfordshire Economic Observatory (OEO) for the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), Oxfordshire Branch

    Does Mentoring Make a Difference for Women Academics? Evidence from the Literature and a Guide for Future Research

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    This paper aims at reviewing literature on mentoring in academia, with a focus on mentoring to enhance women’s careers. A significant gender imbalance in science persists, and mentoring has been recognized as an important instrument for fostering academic women’s careers and addressing such imbalance. However, often the benefits of mentoring are taken for granted. This review aims to unpack the concept of mentoring, understand which trends characterize the mentoring literature, and analyze the evidence; moreover, it aims to discover potential gaps and propose a model to guide future research. A systematic approach is undertaken: four relevant search engines, covering more disciplines, are browsed to look for empirical studies on mentoring academic women from 1990 to March 2017. The review shows that there are some problems. First, there is no agreement on the definition of mentoring. Then, often studies are poorly grounded from a theoretical and conceptual perspective. In addition to the dominating research stream, focused on the benefits for the mentee, three other streams are consolidating: impact on the mentors, the role of group mentoring, and mentoring as an instrument to change institutions. At the end, we propose a model to guide future studies built on a longitudinal perspective

    Knowledge and capabilities for products/services development: the UK spin-off firms context

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    Purpose – This article explores and investigates the skills and capabilities required in developing products and services within UK university spin-offs (USOs) by considering the model of products/services development (Verona, 1999). Design/methodology approach – mixed methods of 20 in-depth interviews and questionnaire survey with 204 founders of USOs. Findings – The findings contribute in filling the literature gap by demonstrating key knowledge and capabilities required to develop products/services within the unique and non-commercial context, in which USOs are created by academics who do not necessarily have entrepreneurial or business experience. Originality/value – This research contributes to studies of product/service development by adapting and modifying elements within the existing theoretical model to be applicable to the specific firm and country context, such as USOs in the UK. Further, the study extends knowledge on the interplay between knowledge management and product development. The applications of the findings are that they can inform academic entrepreneurs on the capabilities significant in the development process. They can also act as indicators to Technology Transfer Office (TTOs) in what is needed for the provision of appropriate support and training to academic founders/entrepreneurs in order to foster and enhance other entrepreneurial activities

    ‘Islands of Innovation’ and diversities of innovation in the UK and France

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    This paper explores diverging patterns of innovation and regional development in two ‘islands of innovation’. In the early 2000s the growth trajectories of Grenoble and Oxfordshire were compared (Lawton Smith 2003). The focus was on national laboratories as territorial actors in the clustering of high-tech firms. Building on longitudinal data collected since 2003 the theme shifts in this study to the forms that government intervention takes through investments in knowledge organisations in high tech economies and how that leads to particular specialisations of technological advance. While there are many similarities, there are differences in starting points and structures, leading to diversities in innovation. The analysis shows how both are embedded in their national situations and opportunities for development. We focus on two key elements in sustaining clusters of innovation, those of highly skilled labour and networks. We show that in Grenoble, the clusters are orchestrated information and project-based while in Oxfordshire they are labour market dominated and organic. We demonstrate complementary relationships between the national and regional level policy formation and implementation. In both cases importance of place is sustained over time but for different reasons

    Strategic alliance motivation for technology commercialization and product development

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    - Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship among alliance motivation (AM), execution of cooperation (EC) and alliance performance of strategic alliance for commercializing technology and developing products. - Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were constructed and tested empirically through a survey of 320 strategic alliances in the food processing industry in Thailand. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were applied to refine scales for measuring AM, execution and cooperation performance. - Findings: This research found that firms adopted social interaction with alliance partners in order to establish mutual expectations about technology characteristics, access opportunity and organisational management styles, factors that are shown to have positive influences on both commercial and partnership performance. Findings also confirm a significant positive impact of technology characteristics, access opportunity, market potential and financial benefit on the adoption of a formal partnership agreement, but a significant impact only on commercial performance. - Research limitations/implications: Further research should use random samples in different industries in other emerging economies, and other data analysis methods to assess decision-making in strategic technology alliances that may include different types of partnerships. - Practical implications: The findings are also useful for managers who leverage operations with external resources obtained through strategic alliances parameters both in the process of managing relationships and achieving results. - Originality/value: This article contributes to extant literature by developing a practical measurement system of AM, actual EC and resulting performance in an emerging economy country. It also contributes to clarify the decision-making of firms that form strategic alliances for commercializing technology and developing products to facilitate more quality management research in other industries and countries

    The effect of external knowledge sources and their geography on innovation in Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) SMEs; some Implications for de-industrialized regions in the UK

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    The paper explores the effect of external knowledge sources and their geography on innovation activity in small Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS). It draws on results from a survey conducted in 2010 of 342 small and medium (SME) KIBS in the UK’s, North East and West Midlands. It is shown that innovation is supported by knowledge gained from frequent interaction with regional and UK customers as well as more frequent interaction with local business networks, including informal contacts as well as national licensing arrangements, regional and UK commercial networks and UK public and professional infrastructure. Innovation capability is also enhanced by internationalisation through both traded and untraded relationships. Various industry-specific business networks and regional government agencies also act as important sources of knowledge and networking in de-industrialised regions. No support is found for benefits arising from the clustering of firms in similar line of business or with regional universities or public sector organisations. Also, while we acknowledge positive effect of R&D on KIBS innovativeness we argue that its' effect is much less important compared to regional and extra regional knowledge source
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