12,170 research outputs found

    The Influence Of Television Pacing On Attention And Executive Functioning

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    Television shows, especially cartoons, are one of the most common types of media in children’s lives. Although there is a well-established connection between television exposure and difficulties with attention, it is unclear if all types of television are equally impactful. Given the amount of time children are exposed to television, there is a need to better understand which components of shows may or may not impact one’s attentional and executive functioning abilities. One such factor is the pace of the content. The current study expands on this limited area of the literature by utilizing a 9-minute 30-second long cartoon video, which has been edited at both a fast and slow pace, to examine the influence of pace on measures of attention and executive functioning (the Stop Signal Task and the Attentional Network Test) in both Typically Developing children (N = 24) and children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; N = 17). Two (group; children with ADHD vs. Typically Developing children) x two (pace; fast vs. slow) ANCOVAs were conducted separately with each outcome measure as the dependent variable, group (ADHD and Typically Developing) and pace (fast and slow) as the independent variables, and IQ and Internalizing Problems as covariates. Findings suggested that although the majority of results were non-significant, effect sizes for group and pace (and associated covariates) varied across outcome measures. The Alerting and Executive Control ANT Networks also had non-significant but small effect sizes for the group by pace interactions. Planned comparisons of estimated marginal means revealed a non-significant and small effect of pace for children with ADHD, but no effect for Typically Developing children, for both interactions. Implications for those who work with and care for children are reviewed, and study limitations and future research directions are discussed

    Anticipatory Semantic Processes

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    Why anticipatory processes correspond to cognitive abilities of living systems? To be adapted to an environment, behaviors need at least i) internal representations of events occurring in the external environment; and ii) internal anticipations of possible events to occur in the external environment. Interactions of these two opposite but complementary cognitive properties lead to various patterns of experimental data on semantic processing. How to investigate dynamic semantic processes? Experimental studies in cognitive psychology offer several interests such as: i) the control of the semantic environment such as words embedded in sentences; ii) the methodological tools allowing the observation of anticipations and adapted oculomotor behavior during reading; and iii) the analyze of different anticipatory processes within the theoretical framework of semantic processing. What are the different types of semantic anticipations? Experimental data show that semantic anticipatory processes involve i) the coding in memory of sequences of words occurring in textual environments; ii) the anticipation of possible future words from currently perceived words; and iii) the selection of anticipated words as a function of the sequences of perceived words, achieved by anticipatory activations and inhibitory selection processes. How to modelize anticipatory semantic processes? Localist or distributed neural networks models can account for some types of semantic processes, anticipatory or not. Attractor neural networks coding temporal sequences are presented as good candidate for modeling anticipatory semantic processes, according to specific properties of the human brain such as i) auto-associative memory; ii) learning and memorization of sequences of patterns; and iii) anticipation of memorized patterns from previously perceived patterns

    Analysing French Pension Reforms

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    In 1982, the French socialist government lead by Pierre Mauroy reduced the legal age of retirement for both men and women. In 1993, the Balladur reform modified the pay-as-you-go basic private scheme. In March 1997, the Parliament enacted the Thomas Act that introduced retirement savings plan, but the law was never enforced because of the political change in June 1997, and was formally abrogated in 2002. Amazingly there seems be a 10 years cycle in French pension system reforms since the French parliament started to examine a new pension reform presented by the French Prime minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin in June 2003. According to his defender, the project is the most comprehensive and the most ambitious since 1945. Our assessment is more critical: in fact, after a four-month round of negotiations with trade-unions and despite its impressive number of articles (81) the final project is milder than it originally was, with a parametric reform of the first pillar as its main component. This article aims at giving the main features of this reform. The first section presents the context of the reform. The second section is devoted to the main features of the reform, while section 3 gives a critical appraisal, underlines the remaining problems, and raises alternative relevant solutions.Retirement;pays-as-you-go;pensions

    Pension Funds in France: Still a Dead-End?

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    Today there still lack a consensus on pension funds in France. The only issue that seems not to be debatable is the willingness to maintain a PAYG public scheme for the basic and complementary pension schemes. The debate concerns the introduction of pension funds as a third pillar. We show in this paper that, even if pension funds hardly exist in France, they have close, but imperfect, substitutes such as life insurance and employee-saving schemes. The difficulty is that these saving instruments are not specifically designed for retirement purposes. There is thus a risk of insufficient saving at old-age. We advocate the introduction of pension-oriented schemes, but not as designed by the Thomas Act, since there is an insufficient protection of wage-earners against financial risks. The first section is devoted to an institutional overview of the French pension system, and presents basic statistics. The second section gives some details on the supplementary occupational funded schemes. In section 3, we argue that funding does exist in France, through personal savings. In section 4 we show that the last reforms did not pave the way to pension funds. Section 5 concludes.pension funds, employee savings schemes, risk sharing

    The Institutional and Political Determinants of Fiscal Adjustment

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    The author empirically assesses the effects of institutional and political factors on the need and willingness of governments to make large fiscal adjustments. In contrast to earlier studies, which consider the role of political economy determinants only during periods of fiscal consolidation, the author expands the field of analysis by examining periods when governments should be making fiscal efforts but fail to do so (or do not try), as well as periods when no adjustment is required. To analyze this greater range of fiscal situations, a multinomial logit framework is applied to a panel of 61 advanced and developing countries, generating a sample size significantly larger than previous work. A key finding is that the political economy factors favouring the maintenance of sensible fiscal policies are different from those that increase the probability of achieving an exceptional adjustment. For instance, the results for developing countries indicate that sound economic institutions help governments avoid dire fiscal situations; however, those countries that actually succeed in making lasting adjustments in the face of a serious need tend to have weak institutions. There is also some evidence that high levels of transfers and subsidies diminish the probability of successful adjustment in developing countries, and that legislative majorities improve the odds. In advanced countries, strong democratic institutions appear to increase the likelihood of avoiding situations of fiscal distress.Fiscal policy; Econometric and statistical methods; Development economics; International topics

    Spatial Modeling of in-vivo Viral Infection with Interferon Response

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    Angle-Independent Nongyrotropic Metasurfaces

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    We derive a general condition for angle-independent bianisotropic nongyrotropic metasurfaces and present two applications corresponding to particular cases: an angle-independent absorber/amplifier and an angle-independent spatial gyrator

    Nonreciprocal Phase Gradient Metasurface: Principle and Transistor Implementation

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    We introduce the concept of nonreciprocal nongyrotropic phase gradient metasurfaces. Such metasurfaces are based on bianisotropic phase shifting unit cells, with the required nonreciprocal and nongyrotropic characteristics. Moreover, we present a transistor-based implementation of a nonreciprocal phase shifting subwavelength unit cell. Finally, we demonstrate the concept with a simulation of a 6-port spatial circulator application

    Non-mechanistic Learning of PDEs from Discrete Spatial Data in Biology

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